Europe 1848: Year of Revolution Begins
By 1848, Europe was already experiencing considerable social tension, in good part due to the rise of industrialization but also because of the European potato famine, both of which led to a migration of the poor to the cities. At the same time, the continent was becoming ideologically divided between the conservative order, which was rigidly maintaining the borders and regimes set up in 1815, and the various proponents of change - nationalists, republicans, liberals and socialists. In January, Sicily revolted against rule by Naples, triggering a wave of unrest among the Italian states. The next month, an uprising in Paris overthrew King Louis Philippe and proclaimed the second French Republic. The Year of Revolution had begun.
12 Jan 1848 Sicilian Revolution▲
A popular uprising broke out in Palermo, Sicily against the ruling Bourbon monarchy of Ferdinand II in Naples. By the end of the month, the citadel in Messina was the only royalist bastion on the island.
10 Feb–14 Mar 1848 Constitutions in the Italian states▲
The Kingdom of Naples, followed by the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and finally the Papal States, proclaimed a constitution in response to urban unrest triggered by the Sicilian Revolution.
22–24 Feb 1848 French Revolution of 1848▲
Riots broke out in Paris, capital of the French Kingdom, eventually forcing King Louis Philippe to abdicate in favor of his grandson Philippe, Comte de Paris, before fleeing for Britain. The revolutionaries arrived in the palace and proclaimed a second French Republic