Europe 1849: Hungarian War of Independence
27 Mar 1849National Assembly proclaims its
constitution for a new German Empire;
only the smaller states accept it
28 Mar 1849National Assembly elects Frederick William IV
of Prussia as Emperor of Germans
but the King rejects the offer
Austria's success in Italy was not matched in Hungary, where the revolution had been reignited when the Austrian government ruled to reduce Hungarian lands and rights within the Empire. With compromise no longer possible, the Hungarians declared independence in April.
27 Mar 1849 Frankfurt Constitution▲
The German National Assembly in Frankfurt proclaimed the Constitution of the German Empire (Frankfurt Constitution), to come into effect the following day.
28 Mar 1849 Frankfurt parliament elects Frederick William of Prussia as Emperor of Germans▲
The German National Assembly in Frankfurt elected Frederick William IV, King of Prussia, as ‘Emperor of the Germans.' Frederick William IV declined to accept the crown as it came from the common people, instead wishing to receive it from the German Princes.
1–11 Apr 1849 Revolt of Genoa▲
In late March 1849, following the Austrian victory at Novara, unrest broke out in Genoa and, after Genoese soldiers joined the insurgents on 1 April, Sardinian troops evacuated the city. The jubilant Genoese proclaimed a Provisional Government to restore Genoa to the people, but were unable to prevent the return of the Sardinians en force on the 4th. In a week of fighting, the Sardinians militarily occupied all of Genoa, suppressing the last Genoese resistance, and then sacked the city itself.
12 Apr 1849 Tuscany recalls Grand Duke Leopold▲
Fearing an Austrian invasion, the municipal council of Florence, Tuscan Republic, usurped the power of the constituent assembly and recalled Grand Duke Leopold.
14 Apr 1849 Hungary declares independence▲
The Hungarian Diet at Debrecen proclaimed the independence of Hungary from the Austrian Empire, with Louis Kossuth as Governor-President, keeping the status of the monarchy undecided.