The Great War
World War I in Europe and the Russian Revolution (26 April 1915)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
The Ottoman Turks had entered the War on the side of Germany in October 1914, threatening the Suez Canal and the Persian oil wells. Even more critically, supply routes to Russia's major ports were now blocked (by the Germans in the north and the Turks in the south). In an attempt to force open the southern route, the Allies landed at Gallipoli but were unable to break Turkish defenses.
First Zeppelin raid on Britain
After raids on Belgium, France, and the Channel, Germany mounted a Zeppelin raid on the United Kingdom on the night of 19-20 January 1915. Two Zeppelins targeted Humberside but, diverted by strong winds, ended up dropping bombs on Great Yarmouth, Sheringham, King's Lynn and the surrounding villages. Four people were killed and 16 injured, with only minor monetary damage. However the raid provoked fear and further raids would follow, with the last on 5 August 1918.
Unrestricted submarine warfare
Germans started the first unrestricted U-boat campaign against Allied trade, attempting to starve the United Kingdom into surrender by sinking its merchant shipping in the Atlantic Ocean.
Second Battle of Ypres
The Germans made a second attempt to break through the Allied salient around Ypres, Belgium. This time, they made the first mass use of poison gas on the Western Front, inflicting some 6,000 casualties on the French in the first few days. In response, the Allies improved gas protection but still lost several km of ground around Ypres along with over 87,000 casualties to the loss of just 35,000 Germans.
April 24 Armenian deportation
Ottomans began the arrest and deportation of Armenian notables in Constantinople, the start of what will become known as the Armenian genocide.
Allied landings at Gallipoli
The Allies landed on and around the Gallipoli peninsula, Turkey: the British/British Indian 29th Division at Helles; the Australians and New Zealanders (Anzacs) north of Gaba Tepe at what would be named Anzac Cove; and the French at Kum Kale on the Asian shore. The Allies managed to secure their position and advanced inland against the Ottoman defenders, despite suffering heavy casualties. However the campaign would soon become a stalemate when Ottoman reinforcements arrived.