Europe 1848: German Question
The 1848 call for German unification had led to nationalists congregating in Frankfurt to establish a national assembly and work on replacing the German Confederation with an Empire. While there was some debate over whether German-speaking Austria would be included in the new Germany, there was little over Schleswig-Holstein, which had just thrown off Danish rule. In mid-April, the embryonic National Assembly declared war on Denmark, sending a Prussian-led mixed German army to Schleswig.
7–25 Apr 1848 Papal States & Naples join war vs Austria▲
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, including both Naples and the rebel Kingdom of Sicily, and the Papal States, joined the Kingdom of Sardinia in the First Italian War of Independence against the Austrian Empire.
12 Apr 1848 First Schleswig War starts▲
The provisional German government in Frankfurt recognized the provisional government of Schleswig and declared war by the German states against the Kingdom of Denmark, commissioning the Kingdom of Prussia to enforce its decrees.
13 Apr 1848 Sicily declares independence▲
The Sicilian Parliament declared Ferdinand II of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies (Naples) deposed, proclaiming the independent Kingdom of Sicily with the declared intention of later joining the Kingdom of Italy.
13–27 Apr 1848 Hecker Uprising▲
Friedrich Hecker led German revolutionaries in a march on Karlsruhe, capital of the Grand Duchy of Baden, in an attempt to overthrow the Grand Duke and establish a republic. They were defeated with the assistance of German Confederation troops under General Friedrich von Gagern.
19 Apr–9 May 1848 Greater Poland Uprising▲
The Polish Legion, originally founded with support of Kingdom of Prussia to fight against the Russian Empire, revolted against Prussian authority. Despite initial successes, the uprising was suppressed.
23 Apr–15 May 1848 May insurrections in France▲
Revolutionary parties were defeated in the first democratic polls of the French Republic, triggering workers' uprisings in the provinces, especially in the cities of Limoges and Rouen, and the 15 May demonstration in Paris, where protestors temporarily seized the town hall and proclaimed an 'insurrectionary government' before being suppressed by the National Guard.