Europe 1849: Restoring the Old Order
The French capture of Rome effectively brought an end to the revolution in Italy, allowing Austria to reassert its traditional dominance in the north in August. At the same time, Russian intervention helped Austria crush the Hungarian rebellion while Prussia stamped out the last remnants of republicanism in Germany.
18 Jul 1849 Fall of Buda▲
With the support of the Russians, the Austrians forced the western Hungarian army into the fortress of Komárom on 11 July 1849, opening the road to Buda, capital of secessionist Hungary. That same day Russian Cossacks reached the vicinity of Pest and the Austrian advance guard began its march eastwards. One week later some 60,000 Austrian Imperial troops led by Field Marshal Julius Jacob von Haynau formally took possession of Buda.
23 Jul 1849 Fall of Rastatt▲
In response to the May Uprising in Baden in 1849, Prussian troops under the leadership of Prince Wilhelm—later Wilhelm I of Germany—set out to crush the secessionist Republic of Baden. When Lorenzo Brentano, provisional president of Baden, hesitated to respond, he was overthrown by hardliners under Gustav Struve and Polish revolutionary Ludwik Mieroslawski. Nonetheless, Prussian forces prevailed, capturing the revolutionary center of Rastatt—at the time containing one of the strongest fortresses in Germany—and bringing an end to the short-lived republic.
31 Jul 1849 Garibaldi’s refuge in San Marino▲
After marching across central Italy—and avoiding French, Spanish, and Austrian patrols on the way—Giuseppe Garibaldi and his remaining 250 followers took refuge in the Republic of San Marino at the end of July 1849. His wife Anita, pregnant to their fifth child, had died near Comacchio during the retreat. Garibaldi would spend the next few years in exile—traveling to New York, Central America, Peru, and various points around the Pacific—before returning to Italy in 1854.
6 Aug 1849 Treaty of Milan▲
In early August 1849 the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Austrian Empire signed the Peace Treaty of Milan, concluding the First Italian War of Independence. By the terms of the treaty, Sardinia renounced its claims to external territories and paid Austria an indemnity of 75 million francs.
13 Aug 1849 Surrender at Világos▲
In August 1849 Hungarian General Artúr Görgei surrendered at Világos, Kingdom of Hungary, to Count Theodor von Rüdiger of the Russian Empire, formally ending the Hungarian Revolution. Despite Russian pleas for clemency, Austria enforced harsh reprisals against the Hungarian rebels, sentencing hundreds of soldiers and civilians to death and imprisoning many more.
27 Aug 1849 End of Republic of San Marco▲
In May 1849 Austrian forces under Field Marshal Joseph Radetzky began their attack on the secessionist Republic of San Marco in Venice, which had vowed to fight on despite the defeat of Italian forces at Novara. After months of bombardment and with famine and cholera rampant in the city, the Venetian assembly finally gave President Daniele Manin authority to seek terms, which were agreed to on 22 August. Five days later, Radetzky marched his troops into Venice, accepting the complete surrender of the republic to the Austrian Empire.