Europe 1809: Treaty of Schönbrunn
The Battle of Wagram (July 1809) ended Austrian chances in the War of the Fifth Coalition. In October they were forced to sign the Treaty of Schönbrunn, ceding Illyria to the French Empire, Salzburg to Bavaria, West Galicia to Poland, and Tarnopol to Russia.
10 Sep–18 Oct 1809 Gottscheer Rebellion▲
After the Battle of Wagram (5 July 1809) French troops marched south to occupy the Austrian Duchy of Carniola, routing an attempt at resistance by a peasant militia in the Gottschee region. However, the French hold was tenuous and, when they began imposing taxes on the region in September and October, the Gottschee Germans and Slovenes rose up, driving the invaders from Gottschee city and a number of villages. The successful Gottscheers then besieged the French garrison at Neustadt (Novo Mesto) but were repulsed and quickly crushed by the arrival of French reinforcements.
17 Sep 1809 Treaty of Fredrikshamn▲
In September 1809 Sweden and Russia signed the Treaty of Fredrikshamn at the Finnish town of Fredrikshamn (Hamina), bringing an end to the Finnish War. By the terms of the treaty, Sweden ceded Lappland and Västerbotten east of the Tornio and Muonio rivers, as well as the island of Åland, and all the provinces to the east to the Russian Empire. In order to placate the Finns, the ceded territories were organized as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland and, in 1812, gifted Russia’s 18th century conquests in Karelia as Viborg County.
1 Oct 1809–26 Jun 1814 Invasion of the Ionian Islands▲
In 1807, as part of the Treaty of Tilsit, Russia withdrew from the Adriatic and restored control of the Ionian Islands to France. The Royal Navy’s Mediterranean Fleet quickly moved to blockade these islands and in 1809 the British began their invasion, seizing Cephalonia, Zakynthos, Ithaca, and Cerigo in October. From here the British sailed north to occupy the Dalmatian islands in 1813, although the French garrison on the central Ionian island of Corfu would not capitulate until 1814.
? Oct 1809–28 May 1812 Russian intervention in Serbia▲
In spring 1809 the Serbs launched a general offensive against the Ottoman Empire, only to suffer a major defeat at Čegar in May. As the Ottomans approached Belgrade, Russian forces intervened in Serbia and drove them back to Niš. The following year, the Russians helped restore Serbia to its former borders, but in 1812 they would abandon the Serbs again in order to deal with Napoleon’s invasion of Russia.
14 Oct 1809 Treaty of Schönbrunn▲
On 14 October 1809 France and Austria signed the Treaty of Schönbrunn, at Schönbrunn Palace near Vienna, bringing an end to the War of the Fifth Coalition. By the terms of the treaty, the Austrians ceded its Adriatic coast to the French Empire, the Duchy of Salzburg to Bavaria, West Galicia to the Duchy of Warsaw, and the Tarnopol district to Russia. Austria also agreed to pay France a large indemnity, reduce its army to 150,000 men, and join the Continental System against Britain. Despite these French gains, the treaty was marred for Napoleon when the 17-year-old German activist Friedrich Staps made an attempt on his life two days before the signing.