Europe 1830: French invasion of Algeria
Following three years of deteriorating relations, France invaded Algiers in mid-1830. Although their swift victory would initiate over a century of French rule in the region, it would be many more decades before the country was fully pacified. The success also failed to save the unpopular French King, who was forced to abdicate when Paris broke into revolution just weeks later.
14 Sep 1829 Treaty of Adrianople▲
The Russian Empire signed the Treaty of Adrianople with the Ottoman Empire, bringing an end to the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-29. By the terms of the treaty, the Ottomans granted Russia access to the mouths of the Danube and fortresses in Georgia; reguaranteed Serbian autonomy and promised autonomy for Greece; and accepted that the Russians would occupy Moldavia and Wallachia until they (the Ottomans) had paid a war indemnity. The Ottoman border was also adjusted in favor of Russia and Wallachia.
3 Feb 1830 London Protocol▲
The Kingdom of France, the Russian Empire, and the United Kingdom signed the London Protocol of 1830, establishing Greece as an independent sovereign state under the governance of Greek nationalist Ioannis Kapodistrias. The protocol amended an 1829 protocol which had set up Greece as an autonomous tributary of the Ottoman Empire. After Kapodistrias’s assassination in 1831, the protocol would be further amended by the London Conference in 1832.
14 Jun–5 Jul 1830 Algiers Expedition▲
After three years of deteriorating relations between the two countries, the Kingdom of France launched an invasion of the Regency of Algiers, landing at Sidi Ferruch near the capital of Algiers on 14 June 1830. The French defeated the Algerians in a matter of days, capturing Algiers on 5 July and exiling its ruler Hussein Dey. Despite this quick victory, the fragmented nature of the regency meant that French control was limited and it would take decades for Algeria to be pacified.