Europe 1991: Breakup of Yugoslavia
With change sweeping Europe, the multi-ethnic communist federation of Yugoslavia, already suffering from nationalistic tensions, began to break apart. In June 1991, the component republics of Croatia and Slovenia declared independence, prompting the Yugoslav Army to march in.
1 Mar–5 Apr 1991 Uprisings in Iraq▲
In the wake of the Gulf War, many of Iraq’s cities and provinces fell to rebel forces as Shia Arabs, Kurdish nationalists, and other groups rose up against the Sunni Arab-dominated Ba’athist government of President Saddam Hussein. Despite these initial successes, the rebellions were mostly crushed in the following month due to internal divisions. The US-led Persian Gulf War Coalition belatedly established Iraqi no-fly zones over northern and southern Iraq, allowing the Kurdish rebels to hold out in the north.
9 Apr 1991 Independence of Georgia▲
On 31 March 1991 the Republic of Georgia held a referendum on independence, with 98.9% of voters approving the restoration of Georgia’s independence as proclaimed in May 1918, prior to Soviet annexation. The results were announced in early April and on the 9th—the second anniversary of the 1989 Soviet crackdown on Georgian protests in Tbilisi—the Georgian Supreme Council unanimously passed the declaration of independence, seceding from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
25 Jun 1991 Independence of Slovenia and Croatia▲
On 23 December 1990 the Republic of Slovenia held an independence referendum, with 88.5% of all electors (94.8% of those participating) voting for independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The Republic of Croatia followed suit with a referendum in May 1991, in which 93.24% voted for independence. In the wake of these referendums, both Slovenia and Croatia declared independence on 25 June, formally seceding from Yugoslavia.
27 Jun–7 Jul 1991 Ten-Day War▲
In response to the Slovenian declaration of independence, the Yugoslav People’s Army invaded the Republic of Slovenia via Croatia. After less than ten days of fighting, in which the YPA proved unable to pacify the country, a cease-fire was arranged and Yugoslav forces withdrew.