Europe 1991: Breakup of Yugoslavia
With change sweeping Europe, the multi-ethnic communist federation of Yugoslavia, already suffering from nationalistic tensions, began to break apart. In June 1991, the component republics of Croatia and Slovenia declared independence, prompting the Yugoslav Army to march in.
1 Mar-5 Apr 1991 Uprisings in Iraq▲
In the wake of the Gulf War, many of Iraq’s cities and provinces fell to rebel forces as Shia Arabs, Kurdish nationalists, and other groups rose up against the Sunni Arab-dominated Ba’athist government of President Saddam Hussein. Despite these initial successes, the rebellions were mostly crushed in the following month due to internal divisions. The US-led Persian Gulf War Coalition belatedly established Iraqi no-fly zones over northern and southern Iraq, allowing the Kurdish rebels to hold out in the north.
9 Apr 1991 Independence of Georgia▲
After a referendum on independence was approved by 98.9% of votes, the Republic of Georgia formally declared independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
25 Jun 1991 Croatia & Slovenia declare independence▲
Following referendums, the Republics of Croatia and Slovenia both declared independence, seceding from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
27 Jun-7 Jul 1991 Ten-Day War▲
In response to the Slovenian declaration of independence, the Yugoslav People’s Army invaded the Republic of Slovenia via Croatia. After less than ten days of fighting, in which the YPA proved unable to pacify the country, a cease-fire was arranged and Yugoslav forces withdrew.