Europe 1826: Russo-Persian War of 1826–28
In 1826 Russian troops encroached on Persian territory in Armenia, disregarding the direct orders of the Tsar—who was focused on the Greek revolution against the Ottoman Empire—not to provoke Persia. The Persians responded by invading the Russian Caucasus, inciting uprisings among local rulers and tribes. Despite initial setbacks, Russia eventually gained the upper hand and in 1828 forced Persia to cede its Armenian territories.
9 Dec 1824 Battle of Ayacucho▲
In December 1824 over 9,000 Spanish Royalist troops under the command of Viceroy José de la Serna advanced across Ayacucho Plain, Peru, in three columns in pursuit of the 5,800-strong United Liberation Army under Marshal Antonio José de Sucre in an attempt to stamp out the independence movement in Peru. When battle was joined, the better-trained ULA routed the royalists—who had suffered from desertion in the wake of the French overthrow of the liberal government of Spain—and captured the viceroy. The remaining royalists surrendered the following day, ending almost all organized resistance to Spanish American independence.
24 Feb 1825–5 Oct 1828 Egyptian intervention in Morea▲
In response to a request for aid by the Ottoman Sultan, Muhammad Ali, Pasha of Egypt, dispatched his son Ibrahim Pasha to Morea (the Peloponnese). Ibrahim and 10,000 Egyptian troops and 1,000 cavalry landed at Methoni in February and March 1825, despite the stormy winter weather. From here the Egyptians rapidly took control of Morea—excluding only Mani and Nafplion—which they held for over three years.
15 Apr 1825–10 Apr 1826 Third Siege of Missolonghi▲
After two unsuccessful attempts to capture the city in 1822 and 1823, the Ottomans returned to besiege the Greek rebels in Missolonghi in 1825. This time 20,000 Ottoman troops led by Reşid Mehmed Pasha, supported by a fleet of 135 ships and 10,000 Egyptian troops under Ibrahim Pasha, faced around 10,000 Greek defenders and civilians. The siege lasted almost a year before the Greeks, by now starving, felt forced to attempt a breakout. The sortie was brutally defeated and the city burned—its population killed or sold into slavery—provoking outrage across Europe.
26 Dec 1825 Decembrist Revolt▲
In December 1825 a succession dispute arose in Russia when, following the death of Tsar Alexander I, Constantine yielded his succession rights to his younger brother Nicholas. Rejecting the decision, liberal-minded army officers—members of constitutionalist societies including the Union of Salvation and the Northern Society—and their 3,000 troops gathered in Senate Square, Saint Petersburg, to declare for Prince Sergei Trubetskoy as interim ruler. After fending off an attack by loyalist cavalry, the rebels were dispersed by artillery fire and arrested.
15 Jun 1826 Auspicious Incident▲
As part of a bid to modernize the Ottoman army, Sultan Mahmud II ordered the reorganization of the Janissary corps—an elite military force when formed in the 15th century but by the 19th century a privileged and ungovernable hereditary class of 135,000. In response, the Janissaries mutinied in Constantinople and attempted to storm Mahmud’s palace but were driven back to their barracks, which were in turn leveled by the Sultan’s artillery. The surviving Janissaries were imprisoned or executed and their possessions confiscated, bringing an end to the corps.
31 Jul–25 Sep 1826 Persian invasion of Russia▲
In May 1826 Russian troops under Aleksey Yermolov occupied Mirak in the Persian Khanate of Yerevan, despite orders from Tsar Nicholas I not to antagonize Persia while the Ottoman Empire was in crisis in Greece. Persia retaliated by invading the Russian Caucasus territories of Karabakh and Talysh in July. By September the Persians, aided by the local Khans and tribesmen, had captured Elisabethpol (Ganja) and were advancing on Tiflis and Baku. At this point Russian reinforcements—veterans of the Napoleonic Wars—arrived, decisively defeating the Persians at Shamkir on 15 September and retaking Elisabethpol ten days later.
Aug 1826–5 Jun 1827 Siege of the Acropolis▲
Following his capture of Missolonghi, Ottoman commander-in-chief, Reşid Mehmed Pasha, advanced on Athens to bring an end to the rebellion in Central Greece. The defenders held out in the Acropolis and a number of relief attempts were made by the Greek army under Georgios Karaiskakis. Karaiskakis was killed in April 1827 and his army defeated at Phaleron soon after, leading the men in the Acropolis to abandon hope and surrender in June.