Europe 16 AD: Battle of Idistaviso
After the defeat in the Teutoburg Forest, Augustus ordered the abandonment of Magna Germania and the construction of fortifications along the Rhine. By 14 AD, following the succession of Tiberius, the Romans were ready for revenge. Bringing order to the mutinous Rhine legions, the general Germanicus mounted a series of campaigns against Arminius, ultimately defeating him at Idistaviso on the Weser River.
10–18 AD Parthian Civil War of 10–18▲
After the assassination of Orodes III of Parthia in about 6 AD, Augustus returned Vonones—an Arsacid prince who had been given as a hostage to the Romans by Shah Phraates—to rule in Parthia. The Parthians soon came to disdain Vonones and his Greco-Roman ways, encouraging another Arsacid, Artabanus II, to relinquish his throne in Media Atropatene and proclaim himself Shah of Parthia in 10 AD. In 15 AD Artabanus chased Vonones into Armenia—bringing Rome and Parthia close to war—but the Romans defused the crisis by arresting Vonones when he arrived in Syria. The former shah was held in Roman custody in the east until 19 AD, when he was killed by his guards while trying to escape.
11? AD Limes Germanicus▲
Following the Battle of Teutoburg Forest, Augustus decided against the Elbe as a practical border for the Roman Empire. Instead he ordered the construction of fortifications along the Rhine River, recommending a line extending along the Rhine and Danube rivers as the northern boundary of the empire.
18 Sep 14–16 Mar 37 AD Reign of Tiberius▲
On 19 August 14 AD, a month before his 76th birthday, Augustus died and within a month the 55-year-old Tiberius—Augustus’ greatest general, step-son, and adopted heir—was confirmed as Princeps by the Senate. Although he would reign for 22-and-a-half years, Tiberius was disinterested in being emperor and came to be remembered as a reclusive ruler whose final years were marred by paranoia-fueled political purges. He died at in Misenum at the age of 77 in 37 AD, allegedly murdered by his grandson and successor, Gaius Caesar (Caligula).
Sep 14 AD Pannonian Mutiny▲
Shortly after the death of Augustus, a mutiny broke out among the legions stationed in Pannonia, near the Danube frontier of the Roman Empire. Unhappy with their payment of swampy and mountainous land, the soldiers attempted to kill their commander, Junius Blaesus. The situation was resolved when Drusus Julius Caesar, Emperor Tiberius’s son and heir, arrived with two Praetorian cohorts on 26 September, addressed the troops’ demands, and executed the leaders of the mutiny.
Sep 14 AD Rhine Mutiny▲
When news of the Danube mutiny reached the Roman legions in Germania, they also revolted, attacking and killing their centurions. The general Germanicus, who was in Gaul at the time, moved quickly to quell the rebellion. Aware of the danger the Germanic tribes still posed on the Roman frontier after the Battle of Teutoburg Forest, Germanicus agreed to the legionaries’ demands to double pay but also executed the mutiny’s leaders.
14–16 AD Germanicus’ campaigns in Germania▲
In a bid to secure their loyalty after the Rhine Mutiny, Germanicus led the Roman legions in Germania in three campaigns of retribution against the tribes loyal to Arminius. After plundering the Marsi, Chatti, and Cherusci, Germanicus defeated Arminius in several battles and recovered two of the three Roman standards lost at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest. After the campaign of 16 AD, Tiberius—who had grown suspicious of Germanicus’s independent actions—recalled Germanicus to Rome, where the latter celebrated a triumph for his victories over the Germans on 26 May 17 AD.
16 AD Battle of Idistaviso▲
With eight legions at his disposal, Germanicus made repeated incursions into Germanic territory, eventually forcing Arminius into battle at Idistaviso, on the right bank of the Weser River. The result was a major Roman victory, with many Germans being cut down as they attempted to flee across the river. Arminius, however, escaped and Tiberius’ decision to recall Germanicus to Rome prevented a follow-up campaign.