Europe 1832: First Egyptian-Ottoman War
In return for assisting the Ottoman Empire in Greece, Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali—nominally an Ottoman governor—demanded he be given Syria. When the Ottomans refused, the Egyptians invaded, easily conquering Syria and defeating the two Ottoman armies sent to expel them.
9 Mar 1831–? ?? 1838 Romagna interventions▲
In the face of the revolutions in central Italy, Pope Gregory XVI and the rulers of Modena and Parma requested Austrian assistance. The Austrians intervened, restoring ducal rule in Modena and Parma and bringing an end to the United Italian Provinces by invading Romagna in the northern Papal States. However France was not happy with Austria occupying part of the Papal States and insisted they withdraw. Romagna went into revolt again, prompting a second Austrian invasion; however this time the French joined in by landing in Ancona. The two powers remained in occupation until 1838.
29 Mar 1831–5 Jun 1832 Bosnian Uprising▲
Ottoman attempts at centralization—especially to abolish the ayan (landlord) system—triggered a revolt by Bosnian ayans, who quickly seized control of most of the Bosnia Eyalet and established their own government in Sarajevo. However the rebels were unable to make headway in Herzegovina, and in February 1832 the Ottoman government moved in, successfully suppressing the uprising by the middle of that year.
? Jun 1831 End of Mamluk Iraq▲
In 1829 Sultan Mahmud of the Ottoman Empire ordered the replacement of Dawud Pasha—the independent-minded Mamluk governor of the Pashalik of Baghdad—but his emissary was assassinated. Plague broke out in Baghdad in early 1831; the death toll (several thousand a day by April) and resultant breakdown in order was exacerbated when the Tigris burst its banks and flooded the city. Taking advantage of the disorder, the Ottoman army intervened in June, forcing Dawud Pasha’s resignation and ending the Mamluk dynasty.
2–12 Aug 1831 Ten Days’ Campaign▲
The United Kingdom of the Netherlands invaded the secessionist Kingdom of Belgium in an attempt to bring an end to the Belgian Revolution. The Dutch quickly advanced across the country, prompting the Belgian government to appeal for French military support. With the involvement of France, the Dutch were forced to back down, agreeing to a ceasefire and withdrawing their troops except for a garrison in Antwerp.
6–8 Sep 1831 Battle of Warsaw▲
In mid-July 1831, following the exhaustion of the Polish rebel offensive, Russian forces began massing along the Vistula opposite Warsaw. The Russian assault opened on 6 September, with almost 80,000 Russian troops facing around 35,000 Poles. By 8 September, the Russians had taken the city, bringing an end to the November Uprising and prompting many of the remaining Polish rebels to flee to neighboring Prussia.
31 Oct 1831–31 Jul 1832 Egyptian invasion of Syria▲
In response to the Ottoman refusal to relinquish Syria as a reward for his support against the Greeks, Muhammad Ali of Egypt sent an army north under his son, Ibrahim Pasha, to take the region by force. Egyptian naval superiority allowed them to rapidly seize most of the coastal cities, while on land they captured Jerusalem in December 1831. In April and July 1832, the Egyptians defeated two Ottoman armies in separate battles near Homs, after which they advanced on Aleppo and Antioch to reach the edges of Anatolia.