The Cold War
The Cold War in Europe (22 February 1958)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
After the Suez fiasco, Britain and France abandoned their colonial empires, with France turning to closer ties with its European neighbors. In the Arab world, the affair turned Egypt's President Nasser into a hero and encouraged Syria to join Egypt in the United Arab Republic, intended as the first step towards a larger pan-Arab state. However the move was feared by the monarchies of Jordan and Iraq, who formed their own federation in response. In the end, neither union lasted long and the hopes of Arab nationalism faded.
On 4 October 1957, the Soviet Union became the first nation to send a manmade object into orbit by launching Sputnik, an artificial satellite with a radio transmitter. Sputnik operated until January 1958 and launched the "Space Race" between the Soviets and the United States.
Treaty of Rome
In order to streamline the rebuilding of postwar Europe, the European Coal and Steel Community had been established in 1951. When an energy crisis threatened peace, the six founding ECSC members (Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany) expanded the powers agreement to avert an energy crisis, forming the European Economic Community.
United Arab Republic
Egypt and Syria proclaimed their political union as the United Arab Republic, with Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser becoming president of the new state on 22 February 1958. The union lasted until 28 September 1961, when Syrian Army officers, dissatisfied with domination by Egypt, seized power in Damascus and restored the Syrian Republic. On 5 October, Nasser recognized the Syrian secession, although Egypt would continue to call itself the United Arab Republic until 1971.
Responding to the formation of the United Arab Republic, the Kingdoms of Iraq and Jordan unite as the Arab Federation, with King Faisal II of Iraq as head of state. The union lasts only six months before Faisal is deposed by a military coup on 14 July, being formally disestablished by Jordan on 2 August.