Europe 411: Downfall of Constantine III
After sacking Rome, Alaric marched into southern Italy, but died there of fever just months later. Meanwhile, in early 411, the rebel general Gerontius crossed the Pyrenees into Gaul and, after killing Constantine III’s son Constans at Vienne, besieged Constantine himself in Arelate (Arles).
410?–411 Edobich on the Rhine▲
In late 410 or early 411 Constantine III sent his magister militum Edobich to the Rhine to secure treaties with the Germanic tribes who had overrun northern Gaul. After successfully recruiting a force of Franks and Alemanni, Edobich headed back south only to discover that Constantine was besieged in Arelate (Arles). Marching to break the siege, Edobich was caught between the armies of Honorius’ generals Flavius Constantius and Ulfilas and routed. In desperation he sought asylum with his old friend Ecdicius, but was betrayed and murdered.
410 Death of Alaric▲
After the sack of Rome (August 410), Alaric and his Goths marched south through Italy, ravaging Campania and Lucania as they passed. By fall they had reached Bruttium, where they began preparing to cross the Strait of Messina to Sicily—and from there sail to Africa—when storms broke out and devastated their fleet. Despondent at this reverse, Alaric turned back north but soon fell ill and died. He was buried in secret near Cosentia (Cosenza) and succeeded as King of the Goths by his brother-in-law Athaulf.
By the first decades of the 5th century, Anglo-Saxons appear to have established a settlement at Mucking, near the mouth of the Thames in Britain, resurrecting a site which had been abandoned by the Romano-Britons for over a century. Although these new settlers seem to have traded with their Romano-British neighbors, it is uncertain whether they were foederati—essentially being employed to help defend Britain against invasion—or something else altogether.
411 Death of Constans II▲
In early 411 Gerontius crossed the Pyrenees into Gaul, alarming Constantine III, who promptly dispatched his son Constans II north to Vienne. Here it was hoped that Constans would be able to rendezvous with the general Edobich, returning from the Rhine with a freshly-recruited force of Franks and Alemanni. However, Gerontius outmaneuvered them all and, reaching Vienne before Edobich, captured and killed Constans.
411 Siege of Arles▲
After killing Constans II at Vienne in early 411, the rebel general Gerontius marched south to besiege Constans’ father Constantine III at Arelate (Arles). However, not long after the siege started, Honorius’ general Flavius Constantius arrived outside the city with an army from Italy and put Gerontius to flight. Constantius then took over the siege, with most of Gerontius’ troops joining him.