Europe 1833: Convention of Kütahya
The 1832 Egyptian victory over the Ottoman Empire at Konya left Constantinople defenseless, driving the Sultan to request Russian support. The landing of Russian troops in the Bosporus alarmed Britain and France, who pushed for an immediate end to the war. The result was the Convention of Kütahya, in which the Ottomans reluctantly agreed to cede Syria, Adana, and Crete to Egypt.
21 Dec 1832–? Feb 1833 Egyptian advance on Bursa▲
Following the victory at Konya, Egyptian forces under Ibrahim Pasha advanced across Anatolia, occupying Kütahya on 2 February 1833. From here he made to winter in Bursa—just across the Sea of Marmara from the Ottoman capital of Constantinople (Istanbul)—effectively threatening to overthrow Sultan Mahmud II.
25 Dec 1832–5 Apr 1833 Russian landings in Bosporus▲
Alarmed by Egyptian advances in Anatolia, Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II requested Russian military assistance. A small Russian military mission disembarked in Constantinople (Istanbul) on 25 December 1832; this was backed up on 20 February when ships from the Russian Black Sea fleet arrived and unloaded soldiers across the Bosporus. An additional force landed in Constantinople in April, provoking dissent among the Muslim population and further alarm in Britain and France—who were already threatening a blockade over the earlier Russian landings.
6 May 1833 Convention of Kütahya▲
With the Egyptians threatening to march on Constantinople, the Ottoman Empire accepted the Convention of Kütahya with Muhammad Ali’s Egypt, bringing an end to the First Egyptian-Ottoman War. By the terms of the convention, the Ottomans accepted Muhammad Ali’s continued rule in Egypt and Crete, recognized his claim to Syria and Adana, and granted his son, Ibrahim Pasha, governorship of Hejaz. In return, the Egyptians agreed to withdraw their forces from Anatolia.