Convention of Kütahya

Congress Europe

Europe 1833.0506

Convention of Kütahya

Congress Europe (6 May 1833)

Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean

The 1832 Egyptian victory over the Ottoman Empire at Konya left Constantinople defenseless, driving the Sultan to request Russian support. The landing of Russian troops in the Bosporus alarmed Britain and France, who pushed for an immediate end to the war. The result was the Convention of Kütahya, in which the Ottomans reluctantly agreed to cede Syria, Adana, and Crete to Egypt.

Main Events

Egyptian advance on Bursa

Following the victory at Konya, Egyptian forces under Ibrahim Pasha advanced across Anatolia, occupying Kütahya on 2 February 1833. From here he made to winter in Bursa - just across the Sea of Marmara from the Ottoman capital of Constantinople (Istanbul) - effectively threatening to overthrow Sultan Mahmud II.

Russian landings in Bosporus

Alarmed by Egyptian advances in Anatolia, Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II requested Russian military assistance. A small Russian military mission disembarked in Constantinople (Istanbul) on 25 December 1832; this was backed up on 20 February when ships from the Russian Black Sea fleet arrived and unloaded soldiers across the Bosporus. An additional force landed in Constantinople in April, provoking dissent among the Muslim population and further alarm in Britain and France - who were already threatening a blockade over the earlier Russian landings.

Convention of Kütahya

With the Egyptians threatening to march on Constantinople, the Ottoman Empire accepted the Convention of Kütahya with Muhammad Ali's Egypt, bringing an end to the First Egyptian-Ottoman War. By the terms of the convention, the Ottomans accepted Muhammad Ali's continued rule in Egypt and Crete, recognized his claim to Syria and Adana, and granted his son, Ibrahim Pasha, governorship of Hejaz. In return, the Egyptians agreed to withdraw their forces from Anatolia.

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