Europe 1828: Morea Expedition
Following the Allied victory over the Ottomans at the Battle of Navarino (1827), French troops were landed in the Peloponnese. With French assistance, the Greek revolutionaries took control of Ottoman positions in the peninsula, laying the groundwork for Greek independence.
22 Feb 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay▲
In 1828 Crown Prince Abbas Mirza, representing the Qajar Dynasty of Persia, signed the Treaty of Turkmenchay with General Ivan Paskievich, representing the Russian Empire. The treaty concluded the Russo-Persian War, with Persia ceding the area of the Caucasus north of the Aras River to Russia - including most of modern-day Armenia and much of Azerbaijan - and granting a number of concessions to Russia. The war and treaty provoked rampant anti-Russian sentiment in Persia; the following year an angry mob stormed the Russian embassy in Tehran, killing almost all its inhabitants.
26 Apr 1828 Outbreak of Russo-Turkish War▲
In retaliation for Russian involvement in the Battle of Navarino (October 1827), the Ottoman Empire closed the Dardanelles to Russian ships and revoked the Akkerman Convention. In response, the Russian Empire declared war on the Ottomans in April 1828. Russian forces quickly moved into Wallachia and Moldavia, crossing the Danube into Dobruja in June.
18 May–1 Jul 1828 Belfastada▲
In May 1828 the garrison at Porto rose against the usurpation of the Portuguese thrown by the absolutist Dom Miguel and declared its loyalty to Dom Pedro IV—who had become Emperor of Brazil—and his daughter Maria. The garrison was supported in this by Liberal exiles from England, arriving aboard the ship Belfast. The rebellion quickly spread to neighboring cities but was decisively defeated by the Miguelites near Coimbra in late June.
14 Jun 1828–10 Oct 1829 Caucasus Front▲
When war broke out between the Russian and Ottoman empires in April 1828, close to 50,000 Russian troops were already in the Caucasus having recently concluded the 1826-28 Russo-Persian War. With the one-third of this number available for offensive action, Ivan Paskevich swiftly advanced to capture Kars, Akhalkalaki, and Akhaltsikhe, before retiring for winter. The Russians mounted a new offensive in the spring of 1829, capturing Erzurum and threatening Trebizond before news of the Treaty of Adrianople reached them in October.
13 Jul–11 Oct 1828 Siege of Varna▲
In July 1828 Russian forces under Tsar Nicholas I began advancing on the Ottoman fortress of Varna, in what is now Bulgaria, arriving in mid-August. Varna was occupied in October, despite Ottoman attempts to break the siege. However, heavy losses during the campaign persuaded the Russians to withdraw most of their forces to the Danube and resume the offensive in the following spring.
29 Aug 1828–1833 Morea Expedition▲
In August 1828 the French landed an expeditionary force in the Peloponnese to support the Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire. After watching the agreed evacuation of Egyptian troops from the peninsula, the French advanced to take control of the remaining Ottoman strongholds. By the end of 1828 most of the expedition’s soldiers were able to return to France, although some stayed on until 1833.
Sep 1828 Conference of Poros▲
In September 1828 British, French, and Russian ambassadors to the Sublime Porte of the Ottoman Empire met on the island of Poros to determine where the border of an independent Greece should lie. The ambassadors decided against restricting Greece to the Peloponnese in favor of a boundary line running from the Gulf of Volos to Arta. This recommendation was at first rejected by both the Ottoman Empire and the British, French, and Russian governments as being too harsh on the Ottomans.