Europe 1849: Fall of the Last Roman Republic
The formation of the new Roman Republic and expulsion of the Pope had been an affront to the Catholic powers of Europe. While Austria invaded the new Republic from the north, the French, despite their own recent republican revolution, landed troops in the south and laid siege to Rome. Eventually the Roman defenses gave way and their leader, the already famous revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi, was forced to flee through the enemy lines to San Marino and then abroad with his small army of Italian patriots.
31 May–6 Jun 1849 German National Assembly moves to Stuttgart▲
In an attempt to escape suppression by Kingdom of Prussia, German National Assembly fled the Free City of Frankfurt and moved to Stuttgart, Kingdom of Wurttemberg, establishing what would dismissively be known as the Rumpfparlament (‘rump parliament’)
18 Jun 1849 German National Assembly dissolved▲
The Army of Kingdom of Wurttemberg occupied the parliamentary chamber of the rump German National Assembly in Stuttgart, expelling the deputies. Unable to relocate, the National Assembly was dissolved.
3 Jul 1849 French enter Rome▲
Forces of the French Republic entered Rome, effectively ending Roman Republic and restoring Holy See’s temporal power. However, some 4000 defending Italian troops led by Giuseppe Garibaldi had already withdrawn in a bid to escape north.