Europe 1849: Alliance of the Three Kings
Prussia responded swiftly to the uprisings in Germany, crushing rebellions in Saxony and the Prussian Rhineland. With its supporters cowed and no army to defend them, the National Assembly crumbled. Prussia now set about restoring order in Germany on its own terms, beginning by forming an alliance with its fellow kingdoms of Saxony and Hanover.
9–14 May 1849 Baden Revolution▲
In early May 1849 a number of military units in the Grand Duchy of Baden mutinied in support of the German revolution, leading a people’s assembly in Offenburg to demand that the grand ducal government unconditionally recognize the Frankfurt Constitution. When the government refused, the revolutionaries marched into the capital Karlsruhe, where they were acknowledged by the army and militia on the evening of the 13th. That night Grand Duke Leopold fled into exile and the following day a new, republican-leaning, government was formed.
10–30 May 1849 Collapse of Frankfurt Parliament▲
The Prussian interventions against the May Uprisings of 1849 exacerbated divisions in the Frankfurt Parliament as it debated whether to condemn Prussian or revolutionary violence. With the regent Archduke John of Austria obstinately refusing to back either cause or to step down, the right-leaning members of the parliament, including minister president Heinrich von Gagern, resigned in mid-May. At the same time, the kingdoms of Prussia, Saxony and Hanover recalled their delegates, reducing the size of the parliament to only a little over 100 members (from over 500 members at the beginning of April).
15 May 1849 Naples takes Palermo▲
Neapolitan forces entered Palermo, Sicily, after Sicilian leadership agreed to surrender, ending the independent Kingdom of Sicily.
18 May 1849 End of Second Carlist War▲
In late April 1849, finding his position hopeless, the Carlist leader Ramón Cabrera withdrew to France, where he was soon arrested. Over the following month, the remaining Carlist holdouts either surrendered to the liberal Spanish government or fled across the border, with the last of them abandoning the fight in mid-May. Its victory in the Second Carlist War secured, the Spanish government granted a general amnesty to the Carlists on 8 June.
21 May 1849 Treaty of Warsaw▲
By early May 1849, in response to Austrian concerns that the Hungarians might attack Vienna, 85,000 Russian troops had gathered in the Austrian province of Galicia. On the 21st, the same day that the Hungarians recaptured Buda, Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria met with Tsar Nicholas I of Russia in Warsaw, where they signed a final treaty agreeing on the intervention of 200,000 Russian troops (plus a possible 80,000-strong reserve force) in Hungary.
26 May 1849 Alliance of the Three Kings▲
In mid-May 1849 representatives of the five German kingdoms—Prussia, Bavaria, Württemberg, Hanover, and Saxony—gathered in Berlin to establish a closer German union divorced from the leftist principles of the Frankfurt Parliament. As a first step, Prussia, Saxony, and Hanover signed an agreement of alliance on the 26th (the two remaining kingdoms, Bavaria and Württemberg, abstained as they wanted participation from all the German states). Under the terms of the agreement, Prussia would hold overall direction of the alliance for one year, after which a new Imperial Constitution would come into effect.