Europe 1827: Battle of Navarino
By 1827 it looked as though the Ottoman Empire and their Egyptian vassals would finally crush the six-year-old Greek revolution, persuading Britain, France, and Russia to intervene on the side of Greece. When the Ottomans rejected their demands, the three Great Powers destroyed the Ottoman-Egyptian fleet at Navarino.
26 Sep 1826–22 Feb 1828 Russian Counter-Offensive in Persia▲
In September 1826 Russian troops defeated the Persians at Ganja, in what is now Azerbaijan, and advanced across the Aras River. The following year the Russians captured Yerevan and Tabriz. With the road to Tehran open, the Persians sued for peace in early 1828.
7 Oct 1826 Akkerman Convention▲
Taking advantage of turmoil in the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire issued an ultimatum in April 1827, demanding an increase in autonomy in the Ottoman vassal states of Serbia, Moldavia, and Wallachia. Bowing to Russian pressure, the Ottomans accepted the Akkerman Convention at the citadel of Akkerman (now Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, Ukraine) in October. At the convention, the Ottomans also agreed to cede Danube ports to Moldavia and restore Serbian lands removed in 1813.
26 Jan 1827–16 Apr 1828 British intervention in Portugal▲
In March 1826 Emperor Pedro of Brazil succeeded to the throne of Portugal but, after satisfying Portuguese liberals by issuing a constitutional charter, abdicated in favor of his 7-year-old daughter Maria, with his younger brother, Miguel, to be her future husband and his sister, Isabel Maria, to act as regent. The regency was unstable and absolutist supporters of Miguel—who was in Austria at the time—seized control in Lisbon. In response, the British landed troops in Lisbon, only departing after Miguel agreed to accept Pedro’s charter and become regent.
29 Apr 1827 Fly Whisk Incident▲
By 1820 France had accrued debts to Jewish wheat merchants in Algiers, who in turn had debts to Hussein Dey of Algiers—debts they claimed they were unable to repay until the French had repaid theirs. After years of attempting to resolve this matter in the face of apparent French stonewalling, the Dey lost his temper and struck the French consul, Pierre Deval, with his fly whisk. This slight sparked a diplomatic incident, leading the French to first demand an apology and then initiate a blockade against the port of Algiers.
6 Jul 1827 Treaty of London▲
In July 1827 Britain, France, and the Russian Empire signed the Treaty of London, calling upon Greece and the Ottoman Empire to cease hostilities in the Greek revolt. The three allied powers declared their intention to mediate in the dispute, pushing for Ottoman recognition of Greece as a semi-independent vassal state. To enforce their terms, the allies agreed to send a combined fleet to the eastern Mediterranean.
20 Oct 1827 Battle of Navarino▲
Following the 1827 Treaty of London on Greek autonomy within the Ottoman Empire, a combined force of British, French, and Russian warships under the command of British Vice-Admiral Edward Codrington was dispatched to the eastern Mediterranean to enforce its terms. When the Ottomans rejected the treaty, Codrington sent his fleet into Navarino Bay—where the Ottoman-Egyptian navy was anchored—allegedly to intimidate the Ottomans into cooperation. Instead, fighting broke out, with the Allies sinking three-quarters of the Ottoman-Egyptian vessels and damaging most of the remainder. Ottoman naval power in the Mediterranean had been eliminated.