Europe 1852: Second French Empire
While the King of Prussia was backing down in Germany, the ambitious French President Louis-Napoleon was consolidating power in France. By 1852 he was ready to restore the French Empire with himself as Emperor Napoleon III. Although this alarmed the nations of Europe, where memories of the Napoleonic Wars were still strong, its importance was soon overshadowed by events further east.
1851 Russia withdraws from Danubian principalities▲
The Russian Empire withdrew its troops from the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
16 May 1851 Dresden Conference▲
The Kingdom of Prussia again recognized the German Confederation at a conference at Dresden, Kingdom of Saxony, and agreed to a secret alliance with the Austrian Empire in defence of the German states.
2 Dec 1851 Louis-Napoleon stages coup d'etat▲
Prince Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, President of French Second Republic, conducts self-coup, arresting opposition leaders and dissolving French National Assembly
8 May 1852 Powers guarantee integrity of Denmark▲
The London Protocol was signed by the Austrian Empire, Great Britain, French Republic, Kingdom of Prussia, Russian Empire, Kingdom of Denmark, and Kingdom of Sweden, guaranteeing the territorial integrity of Denmark and its federation.
21–22 Nov 1852 French Second Empire Referendum▲
A plebiscite was held in France over the restoration of Empire under Louis Napoleon Bonaparte and his family. It was approved by 96.9% of voters with a 79.8% turnout.
2 Dec 1852 Second French Empire▲
With the French Empire formally re-established, Prince-President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed as Napoleon III, Emperor of the French.