Europe 47 AD: Roman Conquest of Britain
Following the capture of Camulodunon (43 AD), Claudius returned to the continent, leaving command in Britain to his general Aulus Plautius. Accepting the Iceni, Dobunni, and Brigantes as client states, Plautius consolidated the Roman hold in southern Britain by conquering the Catuvellauni heartland. Defeated, Caratacus, the last Catuvellauni king, fled to what is now Wales, where British tribes would continue to resist the invaders for several decades.
43–47 AD Plautius’ Campaigns in Britain▲
Following the Roman capture of Camulodunon (43 AD), Claudius left Britain for the continent and Aulus Plautius took over as military governor. Plautius conquered the Catuvellauni heartland in what is now Hertfordshire, accepting the Iceni, Dobunni, and Brigantes as client states. Suppressing the Corieltauvi and Durotriges, Plautius chased the remaining Catuvellauni resisters under Caratacus across the Severn into the territory of the Silures. By the end of Plautius’ campaigns in 47 AD the Romans had established their rule over all Britain south of the River Trent and east of modern Cornwall and Wales.
44–53? AD Claudian Rhodes▲
In 44 AD Claudius annexed the Roman client state of Rhodes, incorporating it into the province of Asia. However, he later restored the island to its independence following an impassioned speech in Greek on its behalf by his fifteen-year-old great-nephew and adopted son, Nero. Rhodes would then continue on as a client state until annexed by Vespasian in 70 AD.
44 AD Roman Mauretania▲
In about 44 AD the Emperor Claudius ordered the annexation of Mauretania to Rome, dividing the former kingdom into two imperial provinces: Mauretania Tingitana, named after its capital, Tingis (Tangier); and Mauretania Caesariensis, named after its capital, Caesarea. The two provinces were separated by the Mulucha (Molouya River) with the traditional, though not effective, southern boundary being the Atlas Mountains.
45?–47 AD Parthian Civil War of 45–47▲
In the mid-40s AD Gotarzes II—who had formerly surrendered the throne of Parthia to his brother, Vardanes I, to restore peace—reneged on his agreement and assembled a force in Hyrcania. Vadanes marched north, defeating Gotarzes at the Charinda River and driving him over the River Sindes—the boundary between the Dahae and the Arians. However, at this moment of victory, Vardanes was assassinated by his some of followers and Gotarzes was proclaimed shah once more.
46 AD Roman Thrace▲
In 46 AD King Rhoemetalces III of Thrace was murdered—either by his wife and co-ruler, Pythodoris II, or by insurgents. The subsequent fate of Pythodoris is unknown, but apparently they had no children. Following this, Claudius annexed the kingdom as the Roman imperial province of Thracia.
46–48 AD Jacob and Simon Uprising▲
In 44 AD Herod Agrippa died and Claudius annexed his Kingdom of Judea to Rome, further inciting the burgeoning Zealot movement, which had grown popular among the Jews during Caligula’s antagonist reign. In 46 the Zealots rallied under Jacob and Simon—sons of Zealot founder Judas of Galilee—and began an insurgency. After two years of fighting, the two were caught and executed by the Roman authorities, hampering the movement.
47–66 AD Paul’s Missionary Journeys▲
In the 30s AD Saul of Tarsus—a Jew and Roman citizen who would become famous as Paul the Apostle—converted to Christianity and began spreading his faith to gentiles (non-Jews). Between 47 and 56 AD he traveled to Antioch, Cyprus, Pamphylia, Galatia, Cilicia, Asia Minor, Macedonia, and Achaia, establishing several churches along the way. In 59, after being denounced in Judea, he was sent to Rome—by now already home to a significant Christian community—where he was eventually trialed and beheaded (c.66 AD).