Europe 340: Battle of Aquileia
The eldest of the three sons of Constantine the Great, Constantine II assumed the position of senior Augustus in 337, but his rulings met resistance from his brothers, Constantius II and Constans. To assert his authority, Constantine entered Italy with a body of troops in early 340, only to be ambushed and killed by Constans’ forces near Aquileia.
338?–339? Constantine II’s German Campaign▲
In around 338 Constantine II faced off a threat by German tribes. Little more is known about this campaign.
338 Restoration of Khosrov the Small▲
In late 337 Constantius II raced back to the East to find that the Persians had already abandoned their invasion of Roman Mesopotamia. After placating the legions—who had grown restive in his absence—he moved on to Armenia, where he restored its Roman client king Khosrov III the Small without significant opposition. He also corresponded with the Arab tribes, encouraging them to raid the Persians.
338 Constans’ Sarmatian Campaign▲
In 338 the Roman emperor Constans fought off a Sarmatian incursion into the Empire, winning a major victory against the invaders.
Apr 340 Battle of Aquileia▲
As senior Augustus, Constantine II interfered in political and religious affairs across the Roman Empire, particularly in Africa, but was met with resistance by his younger brothers, Constantius II and Constans. To assert his authority, Constantine crossed the Alps into Italy with a body of troops in early 340, only to be ambushed and killed by Constans’ forces near Aquileia. With the death of Constantine, Constans gained control of the Prefecture of Gaul, doubling the size of his domains.