Europe 1945: Division of Germany and Austria
With the Nazis defeated, the four Allied powers—Britain, France, the US, and the Soviet Union—divided Germany into four occupation zones, marking additional German territory in the east for later Polish and Soviet annexation. The German capital of Berlin was also divided into four zones, as was Austria and its capital, Vienna.
5 Jun 1945 Allied division of Germany▲
The victorious Allied powers of France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States divided defeated Germany into four occupation zones, with Poland taking control of territory east of the Oder River that it would later annex. The Allies also divided Berlin into four sectors of occupation. US forces remained in the Soviet zone of Germany until early July, when they withdrew westward.
26 Jun 1945 United Nations Charter▲
In June 1945 the United Nations Charter was signed at the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center in San Francisco, United States, by fifty of the original fifty-one founding members (Poland, the only founding member not present, would sign the charter two months later). The treaty entered into force on 24 October 1945, after being ratified by the five permanent members of the security council—China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States—and a majority of the other signatories.
3 Jul 1945 Allied-occupied Berlin▲
By the end of the War in Europe, the Soviet Union had occupied all of the German capital of Berlin. As the city had been divided into four sectors by the London Protocol of 1944, the Soviets handed over designated sectors of the city to arriving US and British forces on 3 July 1945 and to French forces a week later. Although the US, British, and French sectors would later merge into West Berlin, the city would remain divided until 1990.
9 Jul 1945 Allied-occupied Austria▲
On 9 July 1945 the Allies agreed on the borders of their occupation zones in Austria: Vorarlberg and North Tyrol were assigned to the French Zone; Salzburg and Upper Austria south of the Danube to the American Zone; East Tyrol, Carinthia, and Styria to the British Zone; and Burgenland, Lower Austria, and the Mühlviertel area of Upper Austria, north of the Danube, to the Soviet Zone. Vienna was divided among all four Allies and the historical center of Vienna was declared an international zone, in which occupation forces changed every month. The occupation lasted until the Austrian State Treaty of 1955.