Europe 6 AD: Tiberius’ Campaigns in Germania
In 1 AD Augustus sent his stepson Tiberius to subdue the Germanic tribes on the Rhine frontier. In his campaigns, Tiberius eventually extended the Roman border extended as far as the Elbe but was forced to cancel plans to conquer the Marcomanni when revolt broke out in Illyria in 6 AD.
1–6 AD Tiberius’ Campaigns in Germania▲
In 1 AD Augustus sent his stepson Tiberius to subdue the Germanic tribes on the Rhine frontier. Tiberius had limited success in the initial years, but returned in 4 AD to incorporate the Cherusci into the Empire. The victory extended the Roman border as far as the Elbe, but the outbreak of revolt in Illyricum forced the Romans to abandon their plans to complete their conquests by invading the Marcomanni.
2 AD Gaius–Phraates Treaty▲
In 1 BC Augustus sent his grandson and heir, the 20-year-old Gaius Caesar, to invade Parthia in response to a new dispute over Armenia. Instead, after a year of negotiations, Gaius and the Parthian king Phraates V concluded a peace treaty recognizing Roman supremacy over the contested kingdom. While both signatories died two years later—Gaius from a later wounding, Phraates by assassination—the ensuing peace lasted over half a century.
3–6 AD Gaetulian War▲
After some 90 years of peace, Gaetulian tribes attacked Roman-occupied North Africa, possibly in response to Roman-mandated land incursions. Rome dispatched Cossus Cornelius Lentulus to Africa, where he became proconsul of Africa Proconsularis in 6 AD and earned the sobriquet Gaetulicus by successfully suppressing the invasion. Following the war, the Musulamii—hitherto a minor Gaetulian sub-tribe—began asserting themselves and formed their own confederation.
6 AD Province of Moesia▲
The first mention of Moesia as a separate Roman province from Macedonia was in 6 AD, when its governor, Aulus Caecina Severus, was called upon to help suppress the Great Illyrian Revolt of 6–9 AD. His departure encouraged Dacian and Sarmatian raiders to cross the Danube into Moesia, but the province was soon stabilized.
6 AD Roman Judea▲
In 6 AD King Herod Archelaus of Judea divorced his first wife to marry his brother Alexander’s widow Glaphyra—who simultaneously divorced her second husband, King Juba of Mauretania, to be with Archelaus. This violation of Jewish law provoked a mass uprising, leading Rome to depose Archelaus and annex Judea and Idumea as the Roman province of Judea. In response Judas of Galilee led a small insurgency against the Romans, but this was quickly quelled.
6–9 AD Great Illyrian Revolt▲
In 6 AD a number of Illyrian tribes revolted against Roman rule under the leadership of Bato the Daesitiate, and were quickly joined by other tribes under Bato the Breuci. The revolt threatened the neighboring provinces of Noricum, Moesia, Macedonia, and most importantly Italy, compelling Emperor Augustus to recall Tiberius from his campaigns in Germania. The veteran Roman troops, supported by Rome’s Thracian allies, crushed the Breuci in 8 AD and the Daesitiates the following year.