Europe 1815: Napoleon’s Return
Encouraged by news of tensions over the Congress of Vienna, Napoleon escaped from Elba in March 1815, winning over French regiment after French regiment as he made his way back to Paris. Alarmed, the European Powers at Vienna declared Napoleon an outlaw, vowing to remove him from power once and for all.
4 Nov 1814 Union between Sweden and Norway▲
In accordance with the Convention of Moss between Norway and Sweden, King Christian Frederick of Norway transferred executive power to the Storting (Norwegian Parliament) in October 1814, then abdicated his throne and returned to Denmark. After making the necessary constitutional amendments, the Storting elected Charles XIII, King of Sweden, as King of Norway in November. This confirmed the Union between two countries in line with the Treaty of Kiel, but let Norway retain control over its internal policies.
3 Jan 1815 Duchy of Genoa▲
Although the Genoese had revolted against the French in 1814 and successfully restored their republic, the Congress of Vienna sanctioned the incorporation of Genoa into the Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont). In late 1814 British troops took over the administration of the city, which they handed over to the King of Sardinia in January 1815. Bringing an end to the republic, the Piedmontese annexed the territory as the Duchy of Genoa.
18 Feb 1815 Treaty of Ghent▲
On 24 December 1814 representatives of Britain and the United States signed the Treaty of Ghent in Ghent, Netherlands, to end the War of 1812. The treaty came into effect in February 1815, upon unanimous ratification by the United States Senate and the exchange of ratifications the following day.
26 Feb 1815 Escape from Elba▲
Napoleon spent 9 months and 21 days in exile on Elba, until the tensions resulting from the Congress of Vienna persuaded him that the French people were ready for his return. On 26 February 1815, while British and French royalist guard ships were absent, he slipped out of Portoferraio, Elba, aboard the French brig Inconstant with some 1,000 men, landing on mainland France three days later.
1–20 Mar 1815 Napoleon’s Return▲
On 1 March 1815 Napoleon landed at Golfe-Juan, between Cannes and Antibes, with 1,000 followers, and began marching north to Paris. Royalist troops sent to arrest him simply joined him en masse, beginning with the 5th Infantry Regiment at Grenoble on 5 March and culminating with the defection of Marshal Ney and his 6,000 troops at Auxerre on the 18th. Pausing at Lyon on 13 March, Napoleon resurrected his former French Empire as a constitutional monarchy, passing reforms to allow for the extension of the franchise and freedom of the press.
13 Mar 1815 Declaration at the Congress of Vienna▲
News of Napoleon Bonaparte’s escape from Elba and arrival in France with an armed force soon reached the European Powers of Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia, who had assembled at the Congress of Vienna. On 13 March 1815 they issued a declaration that Napoleon had broken his pact with them and was therefore to be regarded as an outlaw. Standing behind the King Louis XVIII as the legitimate sovereign of France, they rejected any possibility of negotiation with the former emperor, resolving to eliminate him as soon as possible.