Europe 1991: Croatian War of Independence
In July, Slovenia, Croatia, and Yugoslavia had signed the Brioni Agreement, in which Slovenia and Croatia agreed to delay independence for three months. This ended fighting in Slovenia but not Croatia, where the Serb-dominated Yugoslav government continued to back Serb Croat rebels. In October, with the moratorium expired, Croatia confirmed its independence as the war with Yugoslavia intensified.
17 Sep 1991 Independence of North Macedonia▲
On 17 September 1991 the Republic of Macedonia declared its independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, after 96.4% of votes in an 8 September referendum approved the move. Due to disputes over its name with Greece—who had their own Macedonian region and ethnic group unrelated to the Slavic population of the Republic of Macedonia—it would not be recognized by the United Nations until 1993, when it was accepted as the ‘Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia’. The dispute over naming would not be settled until a 2018 agreement with Greece allowed for the republic to adopt the name ‘Republic of North Macedonia’ in February 2019.
23 Sep 1991 Independence of Armenia▲
Following an overwhelming referendum vote in favor of secession, the Republic of Armenia declared its full independence and seceded from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
8 Oct 1991 Independence of Croatia▲
Following the expiry of the three-month moratorium imposed by the Brioni Agreement, the Croatian Parliament confirmed the Croatian declaration of independence and severed all remaining ties with Yugoslavia.
27 Oct 1991 Independence of Turkmenistan▲
Following a referendum in which 94% vote for independence, the Turkmen Socialist Soviet Republic seceded from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, declaring independence as Turkmenistan.
10 Nov 1991 Chechen Republic▲
The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria was proclaimed by Dzhokhar Dudayev, seceding from both the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
1 Dec 1991 Independence of Ukraine▲
The government of Ukraine held a referendum on its 24 August 1991 Act of Declaration of Independence, with 92.3% of votes supporting the secession of Ukraine from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. On the same day, Leonid Kravchuk, the parliament chairman and de facto head of state, was elected to serve as the first President of Ukraine.