Europe 102: First Dacian War
In 98 AD Trajan succeeded Nerva as Roman Emperor. Eager to put an end to continued Dacian expansion under Decebalus and avenge Domitian’s defeat, Trajan led his own invasion of Dacia in 101. By 102 Trajan had forced Decebalus to come to terms, effectively making Dacia into a Roman client state.
27 Jan 98–8 Aug 117 AD Principate of Trajan▲
When the Roman emperor Nerva died in 98 AD, his successor Trajan—at the time the accomplished governor of Lower Germania—made his way to Rome after touring the Rhine and Danube frontiers. As emperor, Trajan maintained good relations with the Senate and undertook an extensive public building program in Rome, but would become most well known for his military conquests. Expanding the Empire to include Dacia, Arabia Petraea, Armenia, and Mesopotamia, Trajan fell ill and died in 117 while sailing back to Rome after his Parthian campaigns. He was succeeded by Hadrian, the son of his cousin.
101–102 First Dacian War▲
In 101 the Roman emperor Trajan invaded the Kingdom of Dacia with some 9–11 legions, defeating the Dacians at the Second Battle of Tapae late in the season. Beating off a winter counteroffensive by the Dacians and their allies into Moesia, Trajan continued the war in spring 102 , advancing on the Dacian capital of Sarmizegetusa. Compelled to sue for peace, the Dacian king Decebalus agreed to surrender his siege weaponry, demolish forts, restore captured territory, and become a Roman ally.
101? Battle of Adamclisi▲
In the winter of 101–102 Dacian, Roxolani, and Bastarnae forces entered the Roman province of Moesia in an attempt to force Emperor Trajan to abandon his invasion of Dacia. Crossing the frozen Danube—where many died when the ice unexpectedly broke under their weight—the Dacians and their allies briefly clashed with the Romans at Nicopolis. By now alerted, Trajan withdrew troops from Dacia into Moesia, catching and defeating the invading Dacians at Adamclisi.