Europe 1824: Greek Civil Wars of 1824–25
The Greek revolutionaries had barely expelled the Ottomans from their country when they fell to fighting among themselves. In two short civil wars Greek government forces defeated their fellow revolutionaries in the Morea (Peloponnese) in 1824–25. By the time the civil wars were over, the Ottomans were ready to reassert themselves and in 1825 they returned to Greece in force, supported by the formidable army and navy of their vassal Egypt.
2 Mar–7 Jun 1824 First Greek Civil War▲
In 1823 a rift developed between the Greek revolutionary forces in the Peloponnese (the Moreotes) and those in Continental Greece and the islands (the Roumeliotes and Hydriots). The Greek provisional government decided to host the National Assembly in Nafplio in the Peloponnese, requesting that Theodoros Kolokotronis, a Moreot leader, cede the fort of that city. When Kolokotronis refused, the government invaded the Peloponnese from its base in Kranidi. Kolokotronis eventually agreed to surrender the fort to Andreas Londos and Andreas Zaimos—two Moreotes who had remained loyal to the central government—leading to an uneasy peace.
30 Apr–14 May 1824 Abrilada▲
In May 1823 Queen Carlota Joaquina de Borbón and Dom Miguel, the third son of King John VI of Portugal, organized a military to coup in Vila Franca de Xira, outside of Lisbon, to suspend the 1822 Portuguese Constitution. When adoption of the constitution continued in 1823, Miguel briefly seized control in Lisbon on 30 April but failed to stop the king escaping to the British warship Windsor Castle. John then reimposed his rule and exiled Miguel to Vienna.
3 Oct 1824–23 Jan 1825 Second Greek Civil War▲
In 1824 the first two installments of a promised British loan to the Greek revolutionaries arrived, strengthening the provisional government. However, the Moreotes (Peloponnesians) were antagonized when elections in October excluded them from most government posts and revolted again, attacking Tripoli, Nafplio, and Corinth. The revolt was crushed when a government army under Ioannis Kolettis invaded the Peloponnese, however the defeated rebels would be granted amnesty just a few months later when the Egyptians intervened in the Greek War of Independence.