Europe 1814: First Peace of Paris
In May 1814 the Allies signed the Treaty of Paris with the French, formally bringing an end to the War of the Sixth Coalition. The treaty reduced France to its 1792 borders and thereby restored lost territories to many of France’s neighbors.
25 Apr 1814 Restoration of Piedmont▲
In late April 1814 French rule collapsed in northern Italy, leading to the restoration of the rule of King Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia in Piedmont and a reassertion of independence by the Republic of Genoa. At the Treaty of Paris (30 May 1814) the Kingdom of Sardinia would both gain formal recognition by the powers and be enhanced by the return of Savoy and Nice from France. In a bid to build an Italian buffer against renewed French expansion in Italy, the kingdom was also promised Genoa and other smaller territories.
17 May 1814 Kingdom of Norway (1814)▲
By the Treaty of Kiel (January 1814) Denmark agreed to cede Norway to Sweden after the defeat of France, offending many Norwegians. In response, Prince Christian Frederick of Denmark traveled to Christiania (Oslo) in February, where he began pushing for Norwegian independence in the face of Swedish opposition and Danish denial of support. The Norwegians soon rallied behind Christian Frederick and, on 17 May, after agreeing on a Constitution of Norway, elected him king.
30 May 1814 First Peace of Paris▲
In early May 1814 Talleyrand, representing the exiled Bourbon king Louis XVIII, opened up peace talks with the allied powers of Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia. This culminated in all five parties signing the Treaty of Paris—later called the First Peace of Paris to differentiate it from the 1815 Treaty of Paris—on 30 May. The treaty formally ended the War of the Sixth Coalition, reduced France to its 1792 borders, and restored independence to the countries that had been occupied during the course of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.