Europe 1848: Vienna Uprising
Having imposed peace on the Sardinians, Austria now turned to crush the revolution in Hungary—even though that country was asking for reforms not independence. The population of Vienna sympathized with the Hungarian cause and flew into revolt, expelling the Habsburg imperial court from the city and forcing Austrian troops to hurry back to besiege their own capital. Eventually the Empire prevailed, retaking Vienna while beating back the pursuing Hungarians.
11 Sep 1848 Sicilian Armistice▲
The British and French brokered a six-month armistice between King Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies, ruling from Naples, and the rebellious Kingdom of Sicily.
11 Sep 1848 Jelačić’s invasion of Hungary▲
In August 1848 Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria issued an ultimatum to the Hungarian government, demanding that it repeal its liberal April Laws or face military action. When the Hungarians refused, Josip Jelačić, Ban of the Kingdom of Croatia and a field marshal in the Austrian Imperial-Royal Army, marched 35,000 troops across the Drava River into the Kingdom of Hungary, initiating the war to restore Habsburg power there.
25–27 Sep 1848 Suppression of Wallachian Revolution▲
On 25 September 1848 Ottoman troops under Omar Pasha occupied Bucharest, arrested a number of Wallachian revolutionaries, and defeated a 900-strong resistance force led by a detachment of firemen. Just two days later, the Russians also crossed the border into Wallachia and displaced the Ottomans to take over the administration of half of Bucharest. These two actions brought an end to the Wallachian revolution and forced many revolutionaries to flee to neighboring Hungary.
6 Oct 1848 Vienna Uprising▲
As troops were leaving to crush the revolt in Hungary, revolution broke out in Vienna for the third time in 1848. Mutinous troops, workers, and students engaged in street fighting which saw the rebels lynch War Minister Count Baillet von Latour and seize the imperial armory in Renngasse. The Habsburg commander of the Vienna garrison, Count Auersperg, was forced to evacuate the city, and the next day Emperor Ferdinand I fled with his court to Olmütz (Olomouc).
26–31 Oct 1848 End of the Vienna Uprising▲
In mid-October 1848 Austrian Imperial and Croatian forces gathered under Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz, to retake Vienna and by the 22nd had encircled the capital. The army began a heavy bombardment on the 26th and, after dealing with invading Hungarian forces at Schwechat on the 30th, took full control of the city on the 31st. Some 2,000 people died in the fighting, and the government also executed many prominent surviving rebels—including German National Assembly member Robert Blum—in the following days.
28–30 Oct 1848 Hungarian march on Vienna▲
On 28 October 1848 the Revolutionary Hungarian Army crossed the Leitha river into Austria proper and marched west in support of rebel-held Vienna. Two days later, encouraged by news of the Hungarian advance, the Viennese revolutionaries broke the ceasefire that they had made with the Imperial Austrian Army that morning, but were swiftly routed. At the same time Imperial forces defeated the advancing Hungarians at the Battle of Schwechat, ending any hopes that Vienna would be relieved.