Sub-Saharan Africa 1896: Treaty of Addis Ababa
The Battle of Adwa (March 1896) put an end to Italy’s hopes of conquering Menelik II’s Ethiopian Empire. In October the two nations signed the Treaty of Addis Ababa, confirming Ethiopia’s independence in one of the first decisive setbacks to the European Scramble for Africa.
7 Jun 1896 Battle of Ferkeh▲
In March 1896 Anglo-Egyptian forces under Sir Herbert Kitchener began their march south to reconquer the Sudan from the Mahdist State. In June they encountered their first significant Mahdist opposition at the fortified village of Ferkeh, near Dongola, on the Nile. Routing their surprised opponents in a three-hour battle, the Anglo-Egyptians were nonetheless unable to exploit their victory and seize Dongola due to an outbreak of cholera.
26 Oct 1896 Treaty of Addis Ababa▲
In October 1896 Cesare Maggiore, on behalf of the Kingdom of Italy, signed the Treaty of Addis Ababa with Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia, bringing a conclusion to the Italo-Ethiopian War. By the terms of the treaty, Italy unconditionally abrogated the Treaty of Wuchale (1889) and recognized Ethiopia as a sovereign and independent state. Following ratification of the treaty by the King of Italy in January 1897, Britain and France also concluded treaties with Ethiopia, confirming its independence.