Sub-Saharan Africa 1918: Armistice with Germany
Facing an increasing Allied buildup in Portuguese East Africa (Mozambique), German commander Lettow-Vorbeck led his Schutztruppe north back into German East Africa before crossing into Northern Rhodesia in November 1918. At that point, World War I came to an end in Europe, with Germany accepting an armistice with the Allies.
3 Jul–14 Nov 1918 Schutztruppe in Rhodesia▲
In early July 1918 Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck led the German East African Schutztruppe east from Namacurra, Portuguese East Africa (Mozambique), then north back towards the German East African border, en route narrowly escaping destruction by the British at the Battle of Lioma. After reentering German East Africa, he skirted north of Lake Nyasa, then crossed into Northern Rhodesia where he made for the Chambeshi River.
14 Aug 1918–1920 Flu pandemic in Africa▲
The first, relatively mild wave of the 1918 influenza pandemic only reached a few places in Africa—North Africa, Egypt, and Natal in South Africa—in March–July, with the result that when the deadly second wave hit the continent in August–December, most Africans had had no chance of developing any degree of immunity to the virus. On 14 August a Royal Navy vessel spread the disease to Freetown, Sierra Leone; an outbreak in Cape Town soon followed and the flu hit Mombasa in September. From the main ports the pandemic spread inland, paralyzing trade and shutting down government. In all, perhaps 2.4 million Africans died—around 2.3 percent of the total population.
30 Oct 1918 Armistice of Mudros▲
The Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe signed the Armistice of Mudros aboard the HMS Agamemnon in Mudros harbor on the Greek island of Lemnos. The armistice ended hostilities between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies as of noon the next day (31 October). Its conditions required that the Ottomans demobilize their armed forces and withdraw to Anatolia—including abandoning their gains in the Caucasus—and allow the Allies to occupy the Turkish Straits and any territories in disorder.
11 Nov 1918 Armistice of Compiègne▲
At 5am Paris time, Germany signed an armistice with the Allies in railway carriage No. 2419 D at Compiègne, France, to end its involvement in World War I. The armistice went into effect at 11am and, although not a formal surrender, demanded that the Germans withdraw their troops to behind their own borders, renounce the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, release all prisoners, promise to pay reparations, and surrender their fleet and materials.