Sub-Saharan Africa 1925: Campaign of the Sultanates
In 1922 Mussolini's National Fascist Party gained power in Italy and immediately began pushing for a stronger colonial policy. In 1924 and 1925 Italian forces invaded the hitherto autonomous sultanates of Majerteenia and Hobyo in northern Somalia, firmly incorporating them into the Italian colony.
? Oct 1924–? Dec 1927 Conquest of Majerteenia▲
In early October 1924 the Italian commissioner in Alula presented Boqor Osman Mahamuud, ruler of the Majerteen Sultanate since 1860, with an ultimatum to disarm and surrender. Italian troops immediately landed at Hafun and Alula, rejecting the Sultan's attempts to negotiate and demanding his surrender. Despite this start, Majerteen resistance was fierce and it was not until late 1927 that Italy managed to fully subdue the interior.
13 Oct 1924 Battle of Mecca▲
In the face of the Saudi Sultanate of Nejd's invasion of the Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz, King Hussein bin Ali abdicated in favor of his son Ali bin Hussein on 3 October 1924. Ten days later, the Saudi forces entered Mecca, which had been abandoned by the Hashemites as they fled for the port city of Jeddah.
24 Nov 1924 Egyptian Withdrawal from Sudan▲
On 19 November 1924 Sir Lee Stack, Governor-General of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, was shot and killed by armed Egyptian students while being driven in heavy traffic in Cairo, Egypt. Furious, the British forced the Egyptian Prime Minister, Saad Zaghlul Pasha, to resign and pushed for the immediate withdrawal of Egyptian troops, officers, and civil servants from the Sudan. Seven men convicted for involvement in the assassination were executed by hanging in 1925.
? Oct–26 Dec 1925 Conquest of Hobyo▲
In early October 1925 Italian forces moved into the Sultanate of Hobyo from neighboring territories, swiftly capturing the towns of Hobyo, El Buur, and Galkayo. The invasion was briefly reversed in early November, when a rebellion under military chief Omar Samatar recaptured El Buur. Regrouping, the Italians counterattacked and defeated the resistance in later December, forcing Omar Samatar and his remaining followers to flee into the west.