Sub-Saharan Africa 1907: Consolidation of Ethiopia
By playing the European powers against one another as well as providing support to their wars in Somalia and Sudan, Emperor Menelik of Ethiopia not only preserved his empire’s independence but successfully quadrupled its size between 1883 and the early 1900s. In 1906 Britain, France, and Italy agreed to recognize Menelik’s gains and in the following years the British and Italians confirmed Ethiopia’s new borders.
1906-1911 Ottoman intervention in Tibesti▲
Concerned about the growing French presence in the Tibesti, the Ottoman governor of Tripolitania met with Derde Chai of Tibesti in 1906-1907 and re-established the kaza of the Toubou Reshada, granting Chai a monthly payment as administrator. A token force of two Ottoman soldiers and a flag was sent to Bardai; this presence was expanded in around 1910 as Ottoman garrisons were established in both Bardai and Zouar. Responding to a Senussi request, more Ottoman troops were sent to the region in 1911.
16 Feb 1906 End of Lagos Colony▲
In August 1904 the British Colonial Office appointed Walter Egerton, Governor of Lagos Colony, as High Commissioner for the Southern Nigeria Protectorate, with a view to merge the two territories. This union was achieved on 16 February 1906, when Lagos was incorporated into Southern Nigeria to form the Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria. Although the capital of Southern Nigeria would remain at Calabar for the next eight years, Lagos would become the capital of a united Nigeria in 1914.
6 Jul 1906 Tripartite Agreement on Abyssinia▲
Facing Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia’s deteriorating health, representatives of Britain, France, and Italy met to discuss the future of Ethiopia should his succession prove unstable. On 6 July 1906 the three powers agreed to spheres of influence but to preserve the integrity of Ethiopia and respect the status quo of its frontiers. The powers presented the treaty to Menelik on 16 October for his consideration, then signed it on 13 December.
6 Dec 1907 Anglo-Ethiopian Delimitation Treaty▲
Britain and Ethiopia signed an agreement, delimiting the boundary between the East Africa Protectorate, Uganda, and the Ethiopian Empire. The border was defined as proceeding from the confluence of the Dewa and the Ganale-Darya in Somalia to the northeast coast of Lake Rudolf (Turkana), ceding large areas that had formerly been claimed by the British East Africa Protectorate to Ethiopia. Although Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia signed the agreement, he never ratified it due to ill health and the boundary would not be formally demarcated until the 1950s.