Europe 227: Sasanian Empire
Buoyed by his victory at Hormozdgan, Ardashir I marched his Sasanian army northwest to seize Media, Atropatene, and Adiabene in 224–6. Brushing off repulses in Armenia and Araba—which in any case soon turned to Rome for protection—he then advanced south to conquer Babylonia and depose the last Parthian shah, Vologases VI. Having secured the ancient Parthian capital of Ctesiphon, Ardashir proclaimed himself Shah of a new Persian Empire in 227.
224–226 Ardashir I’s Conquest of Media▲
Following his victory over Artabanus IV of Parthia at Hormozdgan, the Sasanid king Ardashir I advanced north to seize Ecbatana and Parthian Media. He then moved on to invade and conquer the Parthian client kingdoms of Atropatene and Adiabene. His invasion of Armenia was, however, thwarted by the sons of Artabanus under the leadership of the Arsacid prince Tiridates (probably Tiridates II of Armenia).
226–228 Ardashir I vs Vologases VI▲
In 226/227 Ardashir I led the Sasanian forces in an attack against Hatra, capital of the Kingdom of Araba, but was unable to breach the city’s walls and apparently succeeded only in persuading Araba to seek Roman protection. Unfazed, Ardashir turned south, defeating Shah Vologases VI in Ctesiphon and conquering Mesopotamia. Coins suggest Vologases held out in Seleucia until 228, when his fall finally brought the 475-year-old Parthian Empire to an end.
6 Apr 227 Sasanian Empire▲
In 226/227 the Sasanid ruler Ardashir I captured Ctesiphon, capital of the Parthian Empire, from Vologases VI. Here, probably in early April 227, he was formally crowned Shah of a new Empire of the Iranians, vowing to restore the domains of the ancient Achaemenids. Lasting until 651, Ardashir’s empire would be variously called the Neo-Persian Empire and the Sasanian Empire (after Ardashir’s Sasanid dynasty) by historians.