Europe 1878: Treaty of San Stefano
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877-8 began slowly, but by early 1878 the Russians had broken through. At the Treaty of San Stefano, the Ottoman Empire was forced to recognize the independence of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, as well as the creation of a huge autonomous Bulgaria.
4 Jan 1878 Battle of Sofia▲
Russians capture Sofia
3 Mar 1878 Treaty of San Stefano▲
Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of San Stefano, bringing an end to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. In the treaty, the Ottomans agreed to the establishment of a large autonomous Bulgarian state; the independence of Montenegro, Serbia, and Romania; and the cession of Bessarabia, Batum, Ardahan, and Kars to Russia. Both powers ratified the treaty in St. Petersburg on 17 March 1878.