Europe 1823: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
The Spanish Revolution of 1820 made King Ferdinand VII a virtual prisoner of the liberal revolutionaries and created unrest in the countryside. Eventually the continental powers of Europe agreed to a French intervention and in 1823 France invaded Spain in support of the king, restoring his absolutist rule.
1821–28 Jul 1823 Ottoman–Qajar War▲
In 1821, in response to Ottoman harboring of rebellious tribesmen from Persian Azerbaijan, the Qajar Empire of Persia invaded the Ottoman Empire, capturing Erzurum. Meanwhile another Persian force besieged Baghdad but was forced to withdraw after a cholera epidemic. The war ended with the Treaty of Erzurum, which confirmed previous border agreements and guaranteed Persian access to holy sites within the Ottoman Empire.
28 Sep 1821 Mexican Independence▲
On 27 September 1821 Agustín de Iturbide led the Trigarante Army into Mexico City, bringing an end to the Mexican War of Independence. The next day Iturbide installed the Provisional Governing Board, which drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire. In May 1822 Iturbide would be proclaimed the first Emperor of Mexico, although Spain would not recognize Mexican independence until 1836.
9 Jan 1822–13 May 1825 Brazilian War of Independence▲
Attempts by Portugal to reduce Brazil’s status in the empire following King John VI return to Portugal in 1821 led to Dom Pedro, John’s son and Prince Regent of Brazil, accepting a petition demanding the independence of Brazil in January 1822. Under the leadership of British Lord Cochrane, the Brazilian Navy isolated the Portuguese garrisons in Brazil and pursued the remaining Portuguese ships across the Atlantic. Accepting defeat, the Portuguese recognized the independence of the Empire of Brazil in May 1825.
22 Mar–Jul 1822 Chios Massacre▲
In March 1822 Greek revolutionaries from the nearby island of Samos landed on Chios, attacking the Turks and encouraging the Greek population to revolt. On 22 March Ottoman reinforcements began arriving and soon embarked on a campaign of vicious reprisals, killing some 50,000 islanders and enslaving some 50,000 more. Tens of thousands of survivors fled to disperse across Europe in the Chian Diaspora. The massacre caused outrage in the Christian world, boosting support for the Greek revolution.
28 May 1822–17 May 1828 Egyptian intevention in Crete▲
In 1822 Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire called upon his vassal Muhammad Ali of Egypt to help him suppress the Greek revolution, offering the Egyptian ruler the pashalik of Crete. In May one of Muhammad Ali’s sons-in-law, Hussein Bey, sailed an Egyptian fleet into Souda Bay and began the reconquest of Crete, forcing the revolutionaries into the interior by Spring 1824. Greek efforts were revitalized at Gramvousa (1825) and Frangokastello (1828) but were finally suppressed by the end of May 1828.
20 Oct–14 Dec 1822 Congress of Verona▲
The Quintuple Alliance—Austria, Britain, France, Prussia, and Russia—met at Verona to discuss major European issues as part of an attempt to maintain the “Concert of Europe”. The congress sidelined the Italian Question (continued Austrian involvement in northern Italy) and the Greek Question (the Greek revolt against the Ottoman Empire) in favor of the Spanish Question, over dealing with the liberal undermining of royal power in Spain. Despite British opposition, the continental powers agreed to French intervention in Spain to restore the power of the monarchy.
1823–1824 Establishment of Second Saudi State▲
In 1823 Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad, paternal grandson of Muhammad bin Saud (found of the First Saudi State at Diriyah), revolted against Ottoman-Egyptian rule in Nejd. With the support of Sawaid, ruler of Jalajil, he gained control in Irqah and, after further raids, captured Riyadh in late 1824. With Diriyah devastated from the Egyptian occupation, Turki chose Riyadh as his new capital, proclaiming the Emirate of Nejd.
7 Apr–9 Nov 1823 Hundred Thousand Sons of St Louis▲
After three years of liberal government and factional struggles in Spain, the European continental powers agreed to French intervention in support of King Ferdinand VII—who was held captive by the liberals. Around 100,000 French troops—named the “Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis” by French King Louis XVIII—crossed the Pyrenees into Spain in April 1823, occupying Madrid in May and decisively defeating the Spanish Liberals at Trocadero, outside Cadiz, in August. After restoring Ferdinand to power, the French remained in Spain until 1828.