Europe 1810: Siege of Cádiz
In late 1809 the French routed the Spanish army at Ocaña and invaded southern Spain. Fleeing to the port of Cádiz, the government of the Spanish resistance held out against a French siege for two and a half years until 1812, when the Battle of Salamanca finally forced the invaders to return north.
19 Nov 1809 Battle of Ocaña▲
In November 1809 two Spanish armies began converging on Madrid from the north and south, prompting Marshal Jean-de-Dieu Soult and King Joseph Bonaparte to march first against the more dangerous southern army, led by Juan Carlos de Aréizaga. Although Soult commanded only some 30,000 French to Aréizaga’s 51,000 Spaniards, he outflanked and routed his opponent at Ocaña, inflicting as many as 5,000 casualties and capturing 14–26 thousand. Having shattered Spanish military power, the French overran southern Spain that winter.
6 Jan 1810 Treaty of Paris▲
Following the Treaty of Fredrikshamn between Russia and Sweden in September 1809, Napoleon finally consented to peace negotiations with Sweden. By the terms of the Treaty of Paris, signed between France and Sweden in January 1810, the French agreed to withdraw from Swedish Pomerania in return for Sweden’s adoption of the Continental System against British trade.
5 Feb 1810–24 Aug 1812 Siege of Cádiz▲
As the French moved to occupy Seville in early 1810, the Spanish Junta reformed itself as a Regency and fled to the naval base of Cádiz, where it established itself as the Cortes of Cádiz. Some 70,000 French troops under the marshals Claude Victor and Jean-de-Dieu Soult besieged the city from February 1810, but were unable to mount a serious attack due to the difficult terrain. Despite Allied attempts at relief, the siege lasted for two and a half years until August 1812, when the French withdrew in the wake of the Battle of Salamanca.