Europe 1912: Italo-Turkish War
In October 1911 Italy invaded the Ottoman provinces in North Africa. The Italians quickly conquered the coastal cities but found it harder to defeat the Arab and Ottoman forces in the interior, despite the first use of airplanes in warfare. In May 1912, they occupied the Dodecanese in an attempt to force the Ottomans to accept defeat.
29 Sep 1911 Italo-Turkish War▲
In a 1902 secret treaty, Italy agreed to French freedom of intervention in the Kingdom of Morocco in return for the Italian right to intervene in Ottoman Tripolitania (Libya). When the Agadir Crisis erupted over French actions in Morocco in April 1911, Britain and Russia—both French allies—also came out in support of a prompt Italian action against the Ottomans. Encouraged, Italy declared war on the Ottoman Empire in September.
3 Oct–5 Nov 1911 Italian invasion of Tripolitania▲
In early October 1911 the Italian fleet began the bombardment of Tripoli, capital of the Ottoman Vilayet of Tripolitania (Libya). On the 4th, 19,000 Italian and 1,000 Somali troops began landing outside the major coastal towns, capturing Tripoli on the 5th. Tobruk, Derna, and Benghazi fell later that month, encouraging Italy to declare the annexation of Tripolitania on 5 November.
30 Mar 1912 Treaty of Fez▲
In March 1912 Sultan Abd al-Hafid of Morocco, his kingdom by now overrun by French forces, signed the Treaty of Fez with the French diplomat Eugène Regnault. The treaty gave France authority over non-Moroccan citizens and effectively made Morocco a French protectorate, with the exception of Tangier and areas reserved for Spain. In August Abd al-Hafid abdicated in favor of his half-brother Yusef, departing for exile in France and then Tangier.
11 Apr 1912 Third Home Rule Bill▲
British Prime Minister H.H. Asquith introduced the Third Home Rule Bill, paving the way for self-government in Ireland but triggering crisis in Ulster.
27 Apr–19 May 1912 Italian invasion of the Dodecanese▲
In late April 1912 forces of the Kingdom of Italy began landing in the Dodecanese Islands, part of the Ottoman Empire. The main battle took place on Rhodes, where around 10,000 Italian troops landed on 4 May, forcing the surrender of the Ottoman garrison on 16 May and ending 390 years of Ottoman rule.