Europe 18 AD: Arminius’ War with Maroboduus
Tiberius considered Germanicus’ victories over Arminius (14–16 AD) sufficient revenge for the Roman defeat in the Teutoburg Forest, recalling the general to a triumph in Rome. However, Arminius remained at large and, with the Roman pressure gone, he turned to obtaining dominance amongst the Germans. In 17 he attacked his main rival, Maroboduus of the Marcomanni. Soon deserted by his allies, Maroboduus was overthrown by his countrymen and fled to Italy in 19.
Roman Border 17–28
The Roman Imperial border in Europe followed the Rhine and Danube Rivers, with two main exceptions: (1) on the Main River, around modern Frankfurt, were a number of forts which would later become part of the Agri Decumates; (2) in the Netherlands north of the Rhine, the Frisii were under Roman rule and subjected to taxation until their successful revolt in 28 AD.
17–24 AD Tacfarinas War▲
Early during Tiberius’ reign, Tacfarinas—a deserter from a Roman auxiliary regiment—rallied the Musulamii and other Numidian tribes behind him against Roman encroachment, threatening the vital North African grain supply to Rome. Despite suffering defeats at the hands of three separate proconsuls from 17 to 22 AD, Tacfarinas continued to gain followers and by 24 AD still seemed as serious a threat as ever. In that year, Proconsul Dolabella chased Tacfarinas into the client Kingdom of Mauretania, where the Romans managed to ambush and kill him at the ruined fort of Auzea (Sour El-Ghozlane, Algeria), bringing the war to an end.
17–19 AD Arminius–Maroboduus War▲
When it became clear that the Romans would not mount another campaign in Magna Germania, Arminius turned on King Maroboduus of the Marcomanni, his most powerful rival Germanic ruler. Maroboduus’ Langobard and Semnone allies swiftly turned against him, joining Arminius’ warriors—veterans of the war with the Romans—to meet Maroboduus’ inexperienced forces in battle. Undermined by desertions, Maroboduus retreated to the hilly forests of Bohemia, where he was overthrown by Catualda, a young Marcomanni nobleman, and fled into exile in Italy.
17 AD Annexation of Cappadocia▲
During the reign of Augustus, King Archelaus of Cappadocia snubbed Tiberius by showing preferential treatment to Gaius Caesar, Tiberius’ subordinate but also Augustus’ heir at the time. In 17 AD Tiberius, now emperor, summoned Archelaus to Rome and imprisoned him, bringing an end to his fifty-year-reign. Reducing Cappadocia to a Roman province, Tiberius made use of its substantial revenues to lighten the Roman tax burden. While dealing with Cappadocia, Tiberius also annexed the neighboring Kingdom of Commagene—whose king, Antiochus, had recently died—to Syria.