Europe 1933: Hitler Gains Power
The Great Depression that started in 1929, resulted in massive world-wide unemployment. Germany was especially hard hit, with 6 million out of work. Hitler exploited this situation to make his Nazi party the most popular in the country. In 1933, he was made Chancellor and set about solving the unemployment problem by rearmament.
27 Nov 1926–22 Nov 1927 Treaties of Tirana▲
In November 1926 President Ahmet Zogu—later King Zog I—of Albania signed the First Treaty of Tirana with Benito Mussolini of Italy, in which the two leaders agreed to military and economic cooperation, with Italy as Albania’s “guarantor”. One year later the Second Treaty of Tirana, a defensive alliance, was signed, tasking Italy to protect Albania from possible attacks and in return granting the Italians full use of Albania’s military arsenal. Together, the two treaties effectively made Albania an Italian protectorate.
24–29 Oct 1929 Wall Street Crash▲
Between opening on 24 October 1929 (“Black Thursday”) and close on 29 October (“Black Tuesday”), the Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped in value from 305.85 to 230.07 in the most devastating stock market crash in United States history. The crash would bring an abrupt end to the Roaring Twenties and signal the beginning of the Great Depression.
30 Jun 1930 Occupation of Rhineland ends▲
In accordance with the Treaty of Versailles the Rhineland had been occupied by Allied troops, with the occupation scheduled to end in 1934. However, after the Young Plan (August 1929) apparently secured friendly relations with Germany, it was agreed that the troops would leave and the area would remain a demilitarized zone. In 1930 the last Allied troops withdrew from the Southern Zone around Mainz, bringing the occupation to an end.
11 Dec 1931 Statute of Westminster▲
The Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the Statute of Westminster, establishing legislative independence of the self-governing Dominions of the British Empire from Britain. The act was effective immediately in Canada and the Union of South Africa, and was considered irrelevant by the Irish Free State. Of the remaining Dominions, Australia and New Zealand would ratify the act in the 1940s, while Newfoundland would never adopt it due to financial difficulties.
30 Jan 1933 Chancellor Adolf Hitler▲
In a coalition agreement between the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP or Nazi party) and the German National People’s Party (DNVP), German President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Nazi leader Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany. From here Hitler would move swiftly to consolidate absolute power.