The Springtime of Peoples
The Year of Revolution, the Revolutions of 1848-1849, the Hungarian Revolution, the First Italian War of Unification and the First Schleswig War (23 June 1848)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
The apparent success of the European revolutions belied the divisions between the city-based reformers, who desired everything from moderate reforms to the complete overthrow of the current systems of government, and the general population, who were often traditionalists. Thus when the new French Republic implemented universal male suffrage, the people elected a conservative government. Shocked, the urban workers and radicals took to the streets of Paris in June but were crushed by the National Guard. The monarchies of Europe took note - if even France could rein in its revolutionaries, so could they.
Counterrevolution in Naples
King Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies declared martial law in Naples, sending in troops to brutally crush the liberal opposition and plunder the city. Two days later he dissolved parliament and withdrew Naples from the First War of Italian Independence.
German Confederation suspended
The German National Assembly (Frankfurt Parliament) - the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany - met in Frankfurt, Free State of Frankfurt, and suspended the German Confederation as it began a year-long session of debate and deliberation to plan the future of Germany.
The Pan-Slavic Congress was held in Prague, in the Kingdom of Bohemia in the Austrian Empire, between various Slavic groups - including Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Ruthenians/Ukrainians, Slovenes and Croats - to uphold Slavic rights. The Congress was brought to an end when Austrian soldiers arrived and arrested some of the leading delegates.
Battle of Vicenza
Forces of the Austrian Empire, led by Joseph Radetzky, defeated troops of the Papal States, under the command of Sardinian general Giacomo Durando, at Viacenza, Lombardy-Venetia, removing the Papal States from the First War of Italian Independence, linking the Austrian armies in northern Italy and isolating Venice.
Revolutionaries declared a new government in Bucharest, Principality of Wallachia. Prince Gheorghe Bibescu accepted the revolution and abdicated two days later, while the Russian consul left the country for Transylvania, Austrian Empire.
June Days Uprising
French workers marched on the Place de la Bastille, Paris, to protest the plans of the French Second Republic to close the National Workshops for the poor; by the end of the day they controlled most of eastern Paris. In response the government called in the National Guard, suppressing the revolt over three days of fighting and leading to more than 10,000 casualties.