Europe 1911: Agadir Crisis
In 1911, France sent troops to suppress a rebellion in Morocco. Germany promptly claimed the 1906 Algeciras Agreement had been violated and sent a gunboat to the Moroccan port of Agadir. However, France was backed by the Russians (their allies) and the British (who were alarmed by Germany’s growing naval power). In the end, Germany backed down, accepting French control of Morocco in return for gains in equatorial Africa.
12 Mar 1909 British Navy Bill▲
British Navy Bill passed due to alarm at growing German naval strength
13-24 Apr 1909 31 March Incident▲
On 13 April 1909 (31 March in the Julian-based Rumi calendar), the 11th Salonika Reserve Infantry Division declared itself the Hareket Ordusu (”Army of Action”), marching on the Ottoman capital of Constantinople under the commanded of Mahmud Shevket Pasha to oust the Young Turks and restore the power of Sultan Abdul Hamid II. After several days of street battles, the counter-coup was suppressed and the Sultan forced to abdicate.
21 May 1911 Agadir Crisis begins▲
In 1911 a rebellion erupted in Morocco and by early April the rebels were besieging Sultan Abdelhafid in his palace in Fez. In response, France dispatched a flying column to protect European lives and property; in May French troops entered Fez and relieved the siege. However Germany loudly denounced the French moves, accusing France of violating the Algeciras Agreement.
1 Jul 1911 Agadir Crisis▲
In response to the French intervention in Morocco, Germany sent the gunboat SMS Panther to the Moroccan port of Agadir, where it arrived on 1 July. A larger German cruiser, SMS Berlin, followed days later, replacing the gunboat. Britain sided with France and sent battleships to Morocco, but the crisis would begin to be defused from 7 July when Germany notified France that it would accept territorial compensation in the Congo region.