Europe 1908: Bosnian Crisis
In October 1908, a new round in the dismantling of the Ottoman Empire began when Bulgaria declared independence and Austria-Hungary proclaimed the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Both acts violated the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, with Austria's actions in particular inflaming relations with Russia and Serbia.
31 Aug 1907 Anglo-Russian Entente▲
The United Kingdom and the Russian Empire signed the Anglo-Russian Entente in St Petersburg, clarifying their respective influences in south-central Asia. Persia was divided into spheres of influence, with a Russian sphere in the north, a British sphere in the southeast, and a neutral zone in between. Afghanistan was recognized as under British influence and both countries agreed not to interfere in Tibet.
6–24 Jul 1908 Young Turk Revolution▲
In response to the continuing decline of the Ottoman Empire and primarily motivated by suspicions over the Anglo-Russian meeting at Reval in June 1908, military officers involved in the Young Turk movement revolted at Resina, Macedonia. Led by Major Ahmed Niyazi, they defeated suppression attempts by Sultan Abdul Hamid II due to the popularity of the Young Turks in the army. On 24 July, the Sultan capitulated and agreed to restore the constitution of 1876.
5 Oct 1908 Bulgarian independence▲
Despite having a great deal of autonomy since 1878, the principality of Bulgaria remained technically under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire and was therefore unable to assume full control of its foreign policy or join alliances. Chaffing at these restrictions, Ferdinand of Bulgaria took advantage of the chaos caused by the Young Turks Revolution of 1908 to throw off the last vestiges of Ottoman rule. On 5 October [21 September old style], at the Holy Forty Martyrs Church in Tarnovo, Ferdinand formally proclaimed the independence of the Kingdom of Bulgaria, simultaneously changing his title from knyaz (prince) to tsar (king).
6 Oct 1908 Crete proclaims union with Greece▲
Crete proclaims union with Greece
6 Oct 1908 Bosnian crisis▲
Austria-Hungary announces the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina