Europe 1906: Tangier Crisis
Oct 1904Russian Baltic Fleet, en route
to fight Japan, accidentally
fires on British trawlers,
almost leading to war
Germany viewed the Entente Cordiale as a threat and tried to exploit the tensions caused by the war between Russia and Japan to undermine it. However when the German Kaiser decided to openly support the Sultan of Morocco against the French, most of the other powers sided with France and he was forced to back down. As a compromise solution, the Algeciras Conference was called, affirming both Moroccan independence and French influence in Morocco.
21–22 Oct 1904 Dogger Bank Incident▲
Russian Baltic Fleet, bound for the Far East, fires on British trawlers in Dogger Bank, killing 3 fishermen
22 Jan–18 Dec 1905 1905 Russian Revolution▲
On Sunday, 22 January (later known as Bloody Sunday), troops guarding the Winter Palace in St Petersburg, Russian Empire, open fire on the demonstrators attempting to deliver a petition to Tsar Nicholas II, causing hundreds of deaths. The event inspires strikes and protests across the Empire, bringing the Russian economy to its knees. On 30 October the Tsar agrees to grant reforms and the revolution slowly winds down, although revolts continue into December.
31 Mar 1905 Tangier Crisis begins▲
In March 1905 Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany arrived in Tangier, Morocco, and proclaimed German support for the Sultan of Morocco as ruler of a free and independent kingdom—a statement which directly and deliberately challenged French influence in Morocco. The Sultan subsequently rejected a set of French-proposed governmental reforms and issued invitations to major world powers to a conference, precipitating a crisis among the European powers. The crisis peaked in June, when Germany threatened an alliance with Morocco, but was resolved by the Algeciras Conference of 1906.
7 Jun 1905 Norwegian independence▲
In response to growing dissatisfaction over Swedish rule, the Norwegian Storting (parliament) voted unanimously to dissolve Norway’s union with Sweden. The act was ratified by a plebiscite on 13 August. After initial hesitation, Sweden formally recognized Norway’s independence on 26 October when King Oscar II of Sweden renounced his claim to the Norwegian throne.
24 Jul 1905 Treaty of Björkö signed by Germany and Russia in an attempt to renew a Russo-German alliance▲
Treaty of Björkö signed by Germany and Russia in an attempt to renew a Russo-German alliance
16 Jan–7 Apr 1906 Algeciras Conference▲
In response to the Moroccan Crisis of 1905, representatives of Germany, France, Britain, the United States, Morocco, Russia, and a number of other European states met at Algeciras, Spain, to discuss the future of Morocco. The conference concluded by confirming Morocco’s independence, thereby rejecting French attempts to establish a protectorate over the country. However, France’s special position in the country was recognized, with France and Spain having rights to advise and regulate the Moroccan police.