Europe 1993: European Union
While the former Eastern Bloc was collapsing, the nations of Western Europe were forging closer ties. Back in 1958, Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands had established the European Economic Community (EEC) to bring about economic integration. By the early 1990s, with this integration largely achieved, the member states of the EEC, now 12 in number, felt ready to move to the next stage. In 1993, the European Union was established, with a new shared currency (to be called the euro) to be introduced by the end of the decade.
14 Aug 1992–27 Sep 1993 War in Abkhazia▲
Political instability and ethnic divisions within Georgia enabled the former principality of Abkhazia to break away with Russian support, but was unable to obtain widespread recognition.
1 Jan 1993 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia▲
The return of multi-party democracy to Czechoslovakia widened the gap between the constituent Czech and Slovak Republics, who maintained distinct regional parties. Although a majority of Czechs and Slovaks favored continued union, the Slovak government even more strongly opposed efforts at centralization by Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus, leading Slovakia to declare independence effective 1 January 1993.
4 Jul–20 Aug 1993 Armenian Summer Offensives▲
In the summer of 1993, Armenia intervened to stop fighting in Nagorno-Karabakh, a predominantly-Armenian region of Azerbaijan where separatist tensions had existed even before the fall of the Soviet Union.
1 Nov 1993 Treaty of Maastricht▲
On 7 February 1992, following negotiations in the second half of 1991, the nations of the European Community signed the Treaty on European Union at Maastricht, Netherlands. In accordance with this treaty, the European Community formally became the European Union on 1 November 1993. Only three countries—Denmark, France, and Ireland—would hold referenda on this process; the government of the United Kingdom’s refusal to do so would sow the seeds for Brexit in the 2010s.