Europe 1815: Congress Poland
During the 1813 campaign against Napoleon, Prussia had agreed to the Russian rule over the Duchy of Warsaw in return for getting Saxony. However, Austria and Britain opposed the deal, causing friction between the four powers. The situation was resolved in 1815 with the fourth partition of Poland between a Russian-dominated Polish Kingdom, a Grand Duchy of Posen under Prussia, and a Free City of Cracow under the protection of its neighbors. Prussia was also granted much—but not all—of Saxony’s territory, as well as Swedish Pomerania.
23 Apr 1815–26 Jul 1817 Second Serbian Uprising▲
Less than two years after the Ottoman suppression of the First Serbian Uprising (1804–13), the Serbian national council proclaimed a renewed revolt at Takovo in the face of continued Ottoman persecution. Under the leadership of revolutionary veteran Miloš Obrenović, the Serbs quickly drove the Ottomans out of the Pashalik of Belgrade, prompting the Ottoman governor Marashli Ali Pasha to open up negotiations by mid-1815. As a result the de facto independent Principality of Serbia was established in 1817.
2–3 May 1815 Battle of Tolentino▲
By the end of April 1815 Austrian forces had driven Joachim Murat, the Napoleonic King of Naples, from northern Italy and two Austrian corps under generals Bianchi and Neipperg were approaching Murat’s base of Ancona. Taking the offensive, Murat hoped to defeat Bianchi’s contingent, now established at Tolentino, before turning on Neipperg. Although at first things went well for Murat, he was unable to break Bianchi’s line in two days of fighting and was eventually forced to retreat when he heard that Neipperg was nearing. The battle proved decisive, and Murat fled for Corsica two weeks later.
3 May 1815 Congress Poland▲
In May 1815, at the Congress of Vienna, Russia, Prussia, and Austria agreed on what would become the Fourth Partition of Poland. Accordingly, most of the Duchy of Warsaw became a new Polish Kingdom, to be placed in a personal—but subordinate—union with Russia; the Grand Duchy of Posen was ceded to Prussia; and Cracow was made a free city under the protection of Austria, Prussia, and Russia. This reorganization was confirmed by the Congress of Vienna on 9 June.