Europe 1829: Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29

Main Events

Nov 1828 French withdrawal from Spain

Despite an agreed initial date of withdrawal of July 1824—less than a month after the 1823 invasion—the French occupation force in Spain felt compelled to remain due to the weakness of the absolutist Spanish government and British intervention in neighboring Portugal (ironically against Spanish supported absolutists). The French finally departed in November 1828, ending the occupation after five and a half wikipedia

16 Nov 1828–22 Mar 1829 London Protocols

In November 1828 British, French, and Russian diplomats met in London to discuss September’s Poros Conference on Greek independence. Rejecting the conference’s recommendations, the diplomats agreed on an autonomous Greek state, tributary to the Ottoman Sultan and restricted to Morea (the Peloponnese) and the Cyclades islands. However, a second meeting in March 1829 pushed the proposed Greek border north to the line between the Gulf of Arta and the Pagasetic Gulf, thereby including part of Continental Greece and more closely matching the Poros wikipedia

2 Jul–8 Sep 1829 Transbalkan Offensive

In July 1829 a force of 35,000 Russian troops under the command of Field Marshal Hans Karl von Diebitsch advanced across the Balkan Mountains, bypassing the besieged Ottoman fortress of Shumla to capture Burgas. Routing an Ottoman army near Sliven, the Russians took Adrianople in late August—the first time the Ottomans had lost that city since they first captured it in the 14th century. With the Russians now dangerously close to Constantinople, Sultan Mahmud II sued for peace in wikipedia

12 Sep 1829 Battle of Petra

By the summer of 1829 Greek revolutionary forces had liberated Morea (the Peloponnese) and parts of Central Greece from the Ottoman Empire, but Ottoman forces retained control of Athens and much of Boeotia. In September Demetrios Ypsilantis led 3,000 troops of the Greek Army—for the first time trained as a regular European army rather than as guerilla bands—to the narrow pass of Petra in Boeotia, where he engaged and defeated a 7,000-strong Ottoman army as it attempted to travel from Thebes to Livadeia. Trapped, the Ottomans signed a truce with the Greeks, agreeing to surrender all lands from Livadeia to the Spercheios River in return for safe passage out of Central wikipedia