Europe 1829: Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29
In retaliation for Russian involvement in the Battle of Navarino (1827), the Ottoman Sultan closed the Dardanelles to Russian shipping. Russia responded by invading the Ottoman Empire in 1828, advancing on Constantinople the following year. Defeated, the Ottomans were forced to cede territory to Russia, and to accept Russian occupation of Moldavia and Wallachia. Concerned about growing Russian influence in the region, Britain and France recognized Greece’s independence in 1830.
Nov 1828 French withdrawal from Spain▲
Despite an agreed initial date of withdrawal of July 1824—less than a month after the 1823 invasion—the French occupation force in Spain felt compelled to remain due to the weakness of the absolutist Spanish government and British intervention in neighboring Portugal (ironically against Spanish supported absolutists). The French finally departed in November 1828, ending the occupation after five and a half years.
16 Nov 1828–22 Mar 1829 London Protocols▲
In November 1828 British, French, and Russian diplomats met in London to discuss September’s Poros Conference on Greek independence. Rejecting the conference’s recommendations, the diplomats agreed on an autonomous Greek state, tributary to the Ottoman Sultan and restricted to Morea (the Peloponnese) and the Cyclades islands. However, a second meeting in March 1829 pushed the proposed Greek border north to the line between the Gulf of Arta and the Pagasetic Gulf, thereby including part of Continental Greece and more closely matching the Poros Conference.
2 Jul–8 Sep 1829 Transbalkan Offensive▲
In July 1829 a force of 35,000 Russian troops under the command of Field Marshal Hans Karl von Diebitsch advanced across the Balkan Mountains, bypassing the besieged Ottoman fortress of Shumla to capture Burgas. Routing an Ottoman army near Sliven, the Russians took Adrianople in late August—the first time the Ottomans had lost that city since they first captured it in the 14th century. With the Russians now dangerously close to Constantinople, Sultan Mahmud II sued for peace in September.
12 Sep 1829 Battle of Petra▲
By the summer of 1829 Greek revolutionary forces had liberated Morea (the Peloponnese) and parts of Central Greece from the Ottoman Empire, but Ottoman forces retained control of Athens and much of Boeotia. In September Demetrios Ypsilantis led 3,000 troops of the Greek Army—for the first time trained as a regular European army rather than as guerilla bands—to the narrow pass of Petra in Boeotia, where he engaged and defeated a 7,000-strong Ottoman army as it attempted to travel from Thebes to Livadeia. Trapped, the Ottomans signed a truce with the Greeks, agreeing to surrender all lands from Livadeia to the Spercheios River in return for safe passage out of Central Greece.