Europe 1818: Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle
In November 1815 the French signed the Second Peace of Paris with the Allies, ceding territory to the Netherlands and Sardinia, agreeing to pay indemnities for the Napoleonic Wars, and accepting a five-year Allied garrison in northeast France. The French paid off their reparations punctually and by 1818 were ready to complete their obligations. In response, the Allies held the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818), agreeing to end their occupation early and accept France into the Concert of Europe.
3 Oct 1815–30 Nov 1818 Allied Occupation in France▲
Beginning in October 1815, and confirmed by the November 1815 Peace of Paris, Allied troops took up the occupation of northeast France. The major powers—Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia—each occupied one of the four main sectors, with Denmark and the smaller German states garrisoning towns. Under the overall command of the Duke of Wellington, the troops were evacuated as a result of the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818—two years ahead of schedule—due to prompt France’s prompt payment of its indemnities.
8–13 Oct 1815 Murat’s Insurrection▲
Joachim Murat, Napoleon’s King of Naples, returned to the Kingdom of Naples from exile in Corsica, landing at Pizzo in Calabria with a thousand followers. The locals were unsympathetic to his endeavor, with one old woman attacking him and blaming him for the loss of her son. He was soon arrested by the forces of King Ferdinand IV, tried for treason, and executed by firing squad.
20 Nov 1815 Second Peace of Paris▲
In the second Peace of Paris, signed in November 1815 following the second defeat and abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte, France was reduced to its 1790 borders, ceding territory to the United Netherlands and Piedmont-Sardinia. The French were also ordered to pay 700 million francs in indemnities and to pay for the costs of a five-year occupation of northeast France by 150,000 Allied troops (in the event, the occupation was reduced to three years). The treaty also confirmed the neutrality of Switzerland.
8 Dec 1816 Kingdom of the Two Sicilies▲
Following the Neapolitan War of 1815, the European powers agreed to the unification of the Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of Sicily to prevent further French intrigues in the region. In December 1816 the two kingdoms were merged under the rule of Ferdinand I (Ferdinand IV of Naples) to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
Nov 1817–11 Sep 1818 Nejd Expedition▲
In 1817 Egyptian forces under the leadership of Ibrahim Pasha invaded Nejd on behalf of the Ottoman Empire, with the intention of destroying Abdullah bin Saud’s Emirate of Diriyah (Saud and his Wahhabi followers denounced Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II as an infidel). The Egyptians defeated the Saudis, capturing Diriyah in September 1818 and razing it to the ground. Abdullah was sent to Constantinople where he was publicly beheaded for damage he had done to Islamic holy sites.
6 Nov 1817 Principality of Serbia▲
To end the Second Serbian Uprising of 1815–17, the Ottoman official Marashli Pasha negotiated the creation of a Serbian state in an unwritten agreement with the Serbian rebel leader, Miloš Obrenović. Accordingly the Pashalik of Belgrade became somewhat independent as the Principality of Serbia, while remaining under the authority of the Ottoman Empire and retaining an Ottoman garrison in Belgrade. The autonomy of Serbia was further formalized by the Porte in documents published in 1828, 1829, and 1830.
27 Sep–21 Nov 1818 Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle▲
France and the Quadruple Alliance—Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia—met at Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) to discuss French reparations following their defeat in the Napoleonic Wars. By this point France had repaid all but 332 million francs of their original 700 million franc indemnity and offered to discharge its obligations by paying the lump sum of 265 million. The Allies accepted this offer and agreed to withdraw their troops from France. With the end of their demands against France, they further agreed to accept France as a full and equal member of the Concert of Europe (although they secretly renewed the Quadruple Alliance as a precaution).