Europe 1814: Treaty of Fontainebleau
Despite Napoleon’s resistance, the Allies pressed forward into France, capturing Paris in late March 1814. This spelled the end for Napoleon, who was deposed by the French Senate and agreed to abdicate in April. At the Treaty of Fontainebleau, Napoleon’s rule over France was formally ended and he was exiled to the island of Elba.
20–21 Mar 1814 Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube▲
Following his defeat at Laon, Napoleon managed to evade the Allies and strike south, retaking Rheims and moving against the Austrian army under Karl von Schwarzenberg in mid-March 1814. However, Napoleon greatly underestimated the size of Schwarzenberg’s forces, and ended up confronting around 100,000 Austrian, Russian, Bavarian, and Württemberger troops with just 30,000 men. Appalled, Napoleon managed to escape across the bridge at Arcis-sur-Aube on the afternoon of the second day of fighting, having lost some 3–4 thousand troops.
30–31 Mar 1814 Battle of Paris▲
By the end of March 1814, the Prussian prince Blücher and the Austrian prince Schwarzenberg were at the gates of Paris with over 100,000 Austrian, Prussian, Russian, and other Allied troops. Opposing them were at most 40,000 French troops under Duke Moncey; Napoleon was to the south, having unsuccessfully attempted to lure the Allies away from the capital. After a day of fighting in the suburbs, the French capitulated, sparing Paris from destruction.
10 Apr 1814 Battle of Toulouse▲
After defeating the French marshal Soult at Orthez in late February 1814, the Allied British-Portuguese and Spanish army under the Duke of Wellington advanced across southwestern France. Abandoning Bordeaux as indefensible, Soult consolidated his forces at Toulouse, where he held off an attack by Wellington on 10 April. However, fearing Wellington would outflank him, Soult fled the town the following night. The next day news of Napoleon’s abdication arrived, eventually persuading Soult to sign an armistice on the 17th.
11 Apr 1814 Treaty of Fontainebleau▲
On 2 April 1814, with the Allies in Paris, the French Senate deposed Napoleon. Napoleon, who was at the Palace of Fontainebleau, reluctantly acknowledged his situation by abdicating four days later. On the 11th, in the Treaty of Fontainebleau with Austria, Prussia, and Russia, Napoleon was formally stripped of his powers as ruler of the French Empire and exiled to the island of Elba, which was to be established as a separate principality under his rule.