Europe 1813: Battle of Vitoria
Napoleon’s need to defend against the Sixth Coalition in Germany forced him to pull troops from Spain. In May 1813 Wellington launched a renewed offensive from Portugal, threatening French supply lines to the peninsula by marching on the mountain passes of the western Pyrenees. The French tried to stop him at Vitoria, but were roundly defeated, prompting King Joseph Bonaparte to flee to France.
14–27 Jun 1813 Treaties of Reichenbach▲
On 14 June 1813, at Reichenbach (now Dzierżoniów), Britain signed a treaty with Prussia, agreeing to provide a subsidy of 666,666 pounds sterling to maintain 80,000 troops. The following day Britain signed a similar agreement with Russia, to provide a subsidy of 1,333,334 pounds sterling to maintain 160,000 troops. After this, on the 27th, Austria signed a convention with Prussia and Russia to declare war on Napoleon if he rejected its conditions of peace.
21 Jun 1813 Battle of Vitoria▲
In May–June 1813 Wellington led his British, Portuguese, and Spanish army across northern Spain to outflank the French and cut the mountain passes in the western Pyrenees. A 60,000-strong French army under King Joseph Bonaparte and General Jean-Baptiste Jourdan established a defensive position at Vitoria, on the Zadorra river, to oppose him, but Wellington split his 81,000 troops into four fast-marching columns and attacked the French on three sides in the morning of 21 June. The offensive routed the French forces, who fled the field and narrowly escaped encirclement. Although casualties were not huge—8,000 French for 5,000 Allies—the defeat broke French power in Spain and persuaded Joseph Bonaparte to abandon his kingdom for France.